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High density interconnection using photosensitive

High density interconnection using photosensitive

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IE E ET R A N S A C T IO N S O N C O M P O N E N T S , H Y B R ID S , A N D
M A N U F A C T U R IN G
T E C H N O L O G Y ,V O L .1 3 . N O .
I ,M ARCH
1 9 9 0
H ig h -D e n s ity In te rc o n n e c tio n U s in g P h o to s e n s itiv e
P o ly im id e -a n d E le c tro p la te d C o p p e r C o n d u c to r
L in e s
K .K . C H A K R A V O R T Y , C .P . C H IE N ,J .M . C E C H ,M . H . T A N IE L IA N ,
A N D
P .L .Y O U N G
A b s tra c t-M u ltila y e r

h ig h -d e n sity th in -film in te rc o n n e c tio n s tru c tu re s w ith a w iring density of up to1 0 0 0lin e s p e r in c h , p e r s ig n a l la y e r w e re fa b ric a te d u s in g a p h o to s e n s itiv e p o ly im id e a s d ie le c tric a n d e le c tro p la te d copper conductor lines. Lithographic considerations associated

w ith the
patterning of high aspect ratio( >1 .0 ) polyim ide precursor features and
th e ir d is to rtio n s d u rin g
h ig h -te m p e ra tu re
a n n e a lin g
s te p s w e re in v e s ti-
g a te d .A n a n is o tro p ic s h rin k a g e c a u s in g in w a rd
skewingo f the feature
p ro file s
w as
o b s e rv e d .
T h is
phenom enon
o f
a n is o tro p ic
s h r in k a g e
strongly depended
o n
th e
U V
e x p o s u re c o n d itio n s a n d
appears to
h e
related to the nonuniform ity in the precursor cross-link density. V iability
o f
e le c tro p la tin g te c h n iq u e s f o r fa b ric a tio n
o f
sm all-geom etry
c o p p e r
features was exam ined. In
contrast to

th e c o n v e n tio n a l a p p r o a c h , th e p re s e n t a p p r o a c h o f e le c tro p la tin g c o p p e r f e a tu r e s in p a tte rn e d p o ly im id e tr e n c h e s ,

p ro v id e s
e x c e lle n t
p la n a riz a tio n
i n
in te rc o n n e c t
stru c tu re s
c o n ta in in g
h ig h
aspect ratio
f e a tu r e s .
T ransm ission
c h a ra c te ris tic s o f
h ig h -fre q u e n c y
signals in these lossy interconnect lines w ere m easured.
M in im a l d e g ra d a tio n
i n
th e
p u ls e
s h a p e
a n d
a tte n u a tio n
i n
the pulse
am plitude w as observed.A

high-density m em ory m odule w as fabricated using the present approach. The m odule consisted of tw o orthogonalX -Y layers of2 5 pm

w id e c o p p e r lin e s f a b r ic a te d a t a p itc h o f8 0 p m

over a silic o n s u b s tra te . T h e tw o la y e rs o f c o n d u c to r lin e s w e re in te rc o n n e c te d w ith

e le c tro p la te d
c o p p e r
v ia s .
T he
in te g ra te d
circuits w ere
a tta c h e d
d ire c tly
t o
th e
s ilic o n
substrate in
order to
e n s u r e
th e
b e s t
therm al
d is s ip a tio n
a n d
m inim ize therm al
m ism atch
re la te d
stress at the
c h ip
b o n d in g
in te rfa c e .
E p o x y -b a s e d
d ie -b o n d in g
a n d
g o ld
w ire
b o n d in g

techniques w ere used fo r the assem bly of the populated m odule in a m etal fla t p a c k . In te g rity o f th e fa b ric a te d c o p p e r-p o ly im id e m u ltic h ip m o d u le s u n d e r m o is tu re a n d th e rm a l stre ssin g c o n d itio n s w a s e v a lu a te d .

IN T R O D U C T IO N
F F E C T IV E
u tiliz a tio n
o f
th e
v e ry
h ig h -s p e e d
s ilic o n
E
b ip o la r
a n d
G aA s
in te g ra te d
c irc u its
a v a ila b le
to d a y

re q u ire s th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a s u ita b le a d v a n c e d in te rc o n n e c - tio n te c h n o lo g y . T h e in te rc o n n e c tio n te c h n o lo g y e m p lo y e d in a n y

high-performance system
c o n fig u re d
w ith
th e s e
h ig h -

sp e e d in te g ra te d c irc u its sh o u ld b e c o m p a tib le w ith s a tis fa c - to ry p ro p a g a tio n o f h ig h -sp e e d s ig n a ls . T h is in tu rn re q u ire s m inim um

s ig n a l d is to rtio n , c ro s s ta lk , a n d p ro p a g a tio n d e la y a s s o c ia te d w ith th e in te rc o n n e c t lin e s . M u ltila y e r in te rc o n n e c - tio n s c h e m e s w ith fin e lin e c o n d u c to rs a n d a s s o c ia te d g ro u n d planes have been proposed for such applications[11, [2 ]. T ig h t tolerances on

th e
d im e n s io n s o f th e
in te rc o n n e c t lin e s a n d
se le c tio n o f a d ie le c tric w ith lo w d ie le c tric c o n s ta n t im p ro v e s
M anuscriptreceived M ay2 2 , 1989; revised July 31, 1989. This paper w as
presented at th e3 9 th E le c tro n ic C o m p o n e n ts C o n fe re n c e , H o u s to n , T X , M a y
The authors are with Boeing A erospace&
E le c tro n ic s , H ig h T e c h n o lo g y
C e n te r, S e a ttle , W A 9 8 1 2 4 -6 2 6 9 .
IEEEL og Num ber 8931129.
2 2 -2 4 ,
1 9 8 9 .
th e
s ig n a l p ro p a g a tio n
c h a r a c te r is tic s .
C o m p a tib ility
w ith

s ta n d a rd in te g ra te d c irc u it fa b ric a tio n te c h n iq u e s , lo w d ie le c - tric v a lu e a n d e x c e lle n t th e rm a l s ta b ility h a v e m a d e p o ly im id e a n a ttra c tiv e c a n d id a te fo r u se in h ig h -d e n sity in te rc o n n e c tio n technology [3].

In th e c o n v e n tio n a l a p p ro a c h , s p u tte r o r e le c tro n -b e a m (e - beam ) deposited copper conductor lines, several m icrom eters th ic k , a re p h o to lith o g ra p h ic a lly p a tte rn e d e ith e r b y a s u b tra c -

tiv e
o r a d d itiv e a p p ro a c h
follow ed by
th e
d ie le c tric la y e r
d e p o s itio n . T h e p o ly im id e d ie le c tric is d e p o s ite d b y

spin or s p ra y c o a tin g s o f th e p o ly a m ic a c id p re c u rs o r s o lu tio n o n to th e p a tte rn e d c o n d u c to r lin e s .Ah ig h -te m p e ra tu re a n n e a lin g s te p in d u c e s im id iz a tio n a n d fo rm a tio n o f p o ly im id e . S h rin k a g eo f the precursor film

d u rin g th e h ig h -te m p e ra tu re c u rin g
s te p
a d v e rs e ly a ffe c ts th e p la n a riz a tio n a n d n e c e s s ita te s m u ltip le
s p in
o r
s p r a y
c o a tin g
o f
th e
p re c u rs o r
f i l m
b e fo re
a n
acceptable degreeo fp la n a riz a tio n is a c h ie v e d . R e a c tiv e io n
e tc h in g
(M E )
te c h n iq u e s
a re
e m p lo y e d
fo r
th e
v ia
h o le
fa b ric a tio n
o n
th e
th ic k
d ie le c tric
film .
I n
g e n e ra l,
tw o
different approaches have been used for the m etallizationo f
th e
v ia
h o le . T h e
first a p p ro a c h
u s e s
a

s p u tte r d e p o s itio n te c h n iq u e fo r th e v ia fill [3 ]. T h e c o v e ra g e in th is a p p ro a c h is c ritic a lly d e p e n d e n t o n th e p ro file of th e v ia . In o rd e r to in s u re g o o d

metal coverage, the
v ia s
h a v e
t o
b e
fa b ric a te d w ith
p o s itiv e ly
ta p e re d
w a lls
s u c h
th a t
th e
to p
o f
th e
v ia
i s

c o n s id e ra b ly w id e r th a n th e b o tto m . T h u s th e v ia o p e n in g h a s to b e k e p t s ig n ific a n tly la rg e r th a n th e in te rc o n n e c t lin e w id th . T h is re q u ire m e n t re s u lts in th e re d u c tio n o f th e in te rc o n n e c - tio n w irin g d e n s ity . T h e o th e r a p p ro a c h e m p lo y s a n e le c tro le s s deposition process

fo r
v ia
f i l l
[4 ].
E le c tro le s s

d e p o s itio n processes in general, are know n to be sensitive to the surface c o n d itio n s in te rm s o f th e ir d e p o s itio n ra te a n d m o rp h o lo g y

[5 ].I n
a m anufacturing environm ent, such
dependence ad-
v e rs e ly
a ffe c ts th e re p ro d u c ib ility a n d

causes low er yields. Furtherm ore, fabrication of vias by R IEte c h n iq u e si s p ro n e to the form ation of carbonaceous residues at the bottom of the via h o le s

a n d
m ay
r e s u lt
in
p o o r
contact resistance
[6 ].
A n
approach based on a photosensitive polyim ide avoids m any of
o fth e c o m p le x itie s in h e re n t in th e c o n v e n tio n a l a p p ro a c h e s .
This sim plification in
th e
fabrication process enhances the
y ie ld a n d m a k e s th e te c h n o lo g y e c o n o m ic a lly v ia b le .
T h is stu d y
focuses on
a n
approach based
o n
th e
u se
o f
p h o to s e n s itiv e
p o ly im id e
fo r
d ie le c tric
a p p lic a tio n s .
W e
present our investigations of som e of the factors associated
w ith fa b ric a tio n o f h ig h -d e n s ity
interconnect structures using
0 1 4 8 - 6 4 1 1 /9 0 /0 3 O O -0 2 O O $ 0 1 .O O
O
1990 IEEE
Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. Downloaded on November 30, 2008 at 14:21 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
I
C H A K R A V O R T Y
eia l.: IN T E R C O N N E C T lO N
U S IN G
P H O T O S E N S IT IV E P O L Y IM ID E A N D C O P P E R
L IN E S
20 1
~ ~
P O LYIM ID E
w m TE
1
P H O T O L IT H O G R A P H Y
P
I J
~
I -
P I
I
mC O P P E R
1
E L E C T R O P L A T IN G
S U B S T R A T E
F ig .1 .
S c h e m a tic illu s tra tin g th e k e y s te p s in v o lv e d in th e fa b ric a tio no f a
planar signal layer.
p h o to s e n s itiv e

p o ly im id e a n d e le c tro p la te d c o p p e r c o n d u c to r lines. Polyim ide precursor film s w ere evaluated in term s of the p h o to p a tte rn in g

o f
h ig h
a s p e c t
r a t i o
f e a tu r e s ,
a n is o tro p ic
s h rin k a g e d u rin g
th e
h ig h -te m p e ra tu re
a n n e a lin g

step, and m o is tu re a b s o rp tio n c h a ra c te ris tic s . V ia b ility o f e le c tro p la tin g te c h n iq u e s f o r fa b ric a tio n o f fin e -lin e c o p p e r c o n d u c to rs w a s in v e s tig a te d

i n
term s
o f
th ic k n e s s
u n ifo rm ity
a n d
s u r f a c e
m o rp h o lo g y .Ah ig h -d e n s ity
m e m o ry m o d u le c o n s is tin g o f s ix
6 4 K
S R A M \u2019s, tw o
8-b buffers, and
four discrete
ceram ic
c a p a c ito rs w a s fa b ric a te d u sin g th e p h o to s e n s itiv e p o ly im id e /
electroplated copper process.
F A B R IC A T IO N
A P P R O A C H
M u ltila y e r
in te rc o n n e c t
s tru c tu re s
c o n s is tin g
o f
c o p p e r

c o n d u c to r lin e s a n d p o ly im id e d ie le c tric w e re fa b ric a te d u sin g s ta n d a rd p h o to lith o g ra p h ic a n d e le c tro p la tin g te c h n iq u e s . P h o - to s e n s itiv e p o ly im id e p re c u rs o r s o lu tio n S e le c tilu x @ H T R - 3 o f

E M
Industries, Inc. w as used

a s d ie le c tric . T h e p o ly im id e percursor film w as spin-coated, prebaked to tem perature of up to 1 0 0 \u00b0 C , a n d p h o to lith o g ra p h ic a lly p a tte rn e d u sin g a C a n n o n a lig n e r in th e h a rd

c o n ta c t m o d e .A
h ig h -p re ssu re m e rc u ry
la m p w ith s tro n g e m is s io n a t 3 6 5 , 4 0 6 , a n d 4 3 5 n m
w as used

as the U V irradiation source. In general, spray-based develop- in g te c h n iq u e s w e re u se d fo r p a tte rn in g o f th e film s b u t s o m e h ig h

a s p e c t
r a t i o
fe a tu re s
s u c h
a s
v ia s
n e c e s s ita te d
a n

u ltra s o n ic a g ita tio n b a s e d p ro c e s s fo r s a tis fa c to ry d e v e lo p in g . T he patterned precursor film s w ere cured by annealing at high te m p e ra tu re

(u p to 4 0 0 \u00b0 C ) in
a
flo w in g
n itro g e n
a m b ie n t.
C opper
c o n d u c to r
lin e s
w ere
d e p o s ite d
i n
th e
p o ly im id e
trenches by

e le c tro p la tin g te c h n iq u e s . T h e th ic k n e s s o f th e p la te d c o n d u c to r lin e s w a s m a in ta in e d e q u a l to th e d ie le c tric th ic k n e s s th u s in s u rin g a h ig h ly p la n a riz e d to p o g ra p h y fo r th e fabricated signallayer. In Fig.1w e present a schem atic of the a p p ro a c h . T h e m u ltila y e r in te rc o n n e c t s tru c tu re s

fa b ric a te d u sin g th is a p p ro a c h in c lu d e d tw o s ig n a l p la n e s w ith c o n d u c to r lin e s in o rth o g o n a lX

a n d
Y
d ire c tio n s . T h e tw o la y e rs o f
interconnect lines w ere interconnected at selected
p la c e s b y
e le c tro p la te d
c o p p e r v ia s th ro u g h
th e
d ie le c tric
la y e r.

W e fa b ric a te d in te rc o n n e c t s tru c tu re s w ith w irin g d e n s itie s u p to 1000 lines per inch, per signal layer corresponding to a pitch o f2 5p m

fo r th e 1 2 -p m -w id e in te rc o n n e c t lin e s .
T h e h ig h -d e n s ity
c o p p e r-p o ly im id e

in te rc o n n e c t s tru c tu re s w ere fabricated on a silicon substrate. The integrated circuits w ere bonded directly on the silicon substrates in w ells form ed in

th e
c o p p e r-p o ly im id e
m atrix .
T h is
c o n fig u ra tio n

ta k e s a d v a n ta g e o f th e e x c e lle n t th e rm a l c o n d u c tiv ity o f s ilic o n a n d th u s in s u re s g o o d th e rm a l d is s ip a tio n c h a ra c te ris tic s fo r th e assem bled m odule. In addition, the presence of a hom ogene-

H eat
,
o
l
*
O@ f
i
@ +QO*
n
n
P o ly im id e
0
0
HR .
l,\u2019
1.
+
f l \u2019 H
I n
t l
R e a c tio n p ro d u c ts ,\u2019
F ig .2 .
R e a c tio n
o fth e p h o to s e n s itiv e p o ly im id e p re c u rs o r.U V
ra d ia tio n
in d u c e d
c ro ss-lin k in g
o f
th e
p re c u rs o r
(R -4
b o n d
fo rm a tio n )
i s
a ls o
re p re s e n te d[7 ].
o u s s ilic o n in te rfa c e m in im iz e s a n y th e rm a l m is m a tc h ty p e o f
stress at the chip attachm ent layer.

The present approach of fabrication of planar high-density in te rc o n n e c t s tru c tu re s u s in g p h o to s e n s itiv e p o ly im id e d iffe rs s ig n ific a n tly f r o m th e c o n v e n tio n a l a p p ro a c h . T h e g e o m e try o f th e

in te rc o n n e c t
lin e s
d e p o s ite d
i n
p o ly im id e
tre n c h e s

i s a ffe c te d b y th e p ro file o f th e p o ly im id e fe a tu re s . T h e re fo re , th e lim its o f th e p re s e n t a p p ro a c h , i.e ., th e h ig h e s t w irin g d e n s ity

a c h ie v a b le ,
i s
c lo s e ly
re la te d
t o
th e

lith o g ra p h ic re s o lu tio n o f th e p o ly im id e film s a n d th e d is to rtio n s in th e p a tte rn e d p ro file in c u rre d

d u rin g th e c u rin g s te p . T h e fin a l
g e o m e try
o f th e p o ly im id e
features depends
i n
a
c o m p le x
m a n n e r o n th e p a tte rn in g c o n d itio n s a n d c u rin g d y n a m ic s .
P O L Y IM ID E
C H E M IS T R Y
A N D
L IT H O G R A P H Y
C h e m ic a l P r in c ip le

Selectilux@ H TR -3 is a polyam ic acid ester based precursor s o lu tio n c o n fo rm in g to th e c la s s o f p h o to p o ly m e rs a s re p o rte d in[7 ].A n e s te r g ro u p s u c h a s o x y e th y lm e th a c ry la te , fo rm s a c ro s s lin k e d in te rm e d ia te u p o n irra d ia tio n w ith U V

ra d ia tio n . In c o n tra s t to th e p o ly a m ic a c id e s te rs , th e p h o to -c ro s s lin k e d in te rm e d ia te s h o w s o n ly lim ite d s o lu b ility

in a p o la r s o lv e n t.
T h is d iffe re n tia l in s o lu b ility
between an exposed and unex-
p o s e d

region form s the basis of working of this resist. The p rin c ip le o f p h o to p a tte rn in g is m u c h th e s a m e a s fo r a n e g a tiv e resist. H ig h -tem p eratu re

annealing causes
rin g
c lo s u re
a n d

p o ly im id e fo rm a tio n v ia c le a v a g e o f th e e s te r g ro u p s . T h e c ro s s lin k e d e s te r g ro u p s a r e d e p o ly m e riz e d a n d v o la tiliz e d . In F ig .2

we show
th e re a c tio n c o rre s p o n d in g to th e c h e m ic a l
p rin c ip le .
T h e S e le c tilu x @ H T R - 3 h a s a p h o to s p e e d o f a b o u t 2 0 0 -4 0 0
m J c m - 2 (5 -2 0
p m
fin a l th ic k n e s s ) in th e 3 5 0 -4 5 0 -n m
ra n g e
w ith m a x im u m sen sitiv ity
around 400 nm
[8 ].
P h o to p a tte r n in g
and Shrinkage M echanism
D ie le c tric th ic k n e s s in e x c e s s o f 6 p m
is e m p lo y e d in th e
p re s e n t s tru c tu re s . In o rd e r to a c h ie v e th is th ic k n e s s , a n in itia l
I
Authorized licensed use limited to: IEEE Xplore. Downloaded on November 30, 2008 at 14:21 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
2 0 2
IE E E T R A N S A C T IO N S O N
C O M P O N E N T S , H Y B R ID S . A N D
M A N U F A C T U R IN G
T E C H N O L O G Y ,V O L .1 3 . N O .
1 .
M ARCH
1 9 9 0
I
0
1 0
2 0
3 0
4 0
0 .5 0 '
L IN E W ID T H(b m )
(b )
F ig .3 .
Profiles of photopatterned precursor features. (a) Scanning electron
m ic ro g ra p h s (S E M ) o f a9 -p m
(W ,,,)
wide polyim ide precursor feature
show ing a significant narrow ing near the bottom . Exposure dose w as 225
m lcm -2 (m easured at 406 nm ). A lso presented is a schem atic explaning
W ,,,a n d
W ,,,.(b ) V a ria tio n o f fe a tu re p ro file a s a fu n c tio n o f lin e w id th
and exposure dose.
p re c u rs o r
f i l m
th ic k n e s s
i n
e x c e s s
o f
1 2
p m
i s
re q u ire d .
L ith o g ra p h y o f s u c h th ic k
p o ly im id e p re c u rs o r

film s poses u n iq u e c h a lle n g e s . T h e p ro file s o f th e p h o to p a tte rn e d s tru c - tu re s

d e p e n d
i n
a
c o m p le x
m anner
o n
v a rio u s
p ro c e s s in g
param eters
s u c h
a s
e x p o s u re
d o s e ,
lin e w id th ,
a n d
c u rin g
c o n d itio n s . In F ig .3we show

th e d e p e n d e n c e o f p a tte rn e d fe a tu re p ro file s o n lin e w id th a n d e x p o s u re d o s e f o r a 1 3 -p m - th ic k p re c u rs o r film . In g e n e ra l, n a rro w in g o f th e p ro file n e a r th e

b o tto m
o f
th e
stru c tu re
i s
o b s e rv e d .
T he
e x te n t
o f
n a rro w in g is m o re p ro n o u n c e d a t lo w e r U V

exposure doses. S c a n n in g e le c tro n m ic ro g ra p h s s h o w a n in w a rd s lo p e d p ro file w ith th e m a x im u m in w id th o c c u rrin g a t th e to p . T h e ra tio o f th e m in im u m

a n d th e m a x im u m
w id th is in d ic a te d
b y
W m in/
W ,,,in F ig .3 a n d is re p re s e n ta tiv e o f th e in w a rd s k e w in g o f

th e p ro file . T h is ra tio fo llo w s a s y s te m a tic d e p e n d e n c e o n th e exposure dose. A higher exposure dose increases W m i,,/W ,,,. T h is p h e n o m e n o n

is m ore
p ro n o u n c e d
fo r
s tru c tu re s
w ith
sm aller feature size.
T h is o b s e rv e d p h e n o m e n o no f lin e w id th n a rro w in g c a n b e
e x p la in e d
i n
term s of the
a b s o rp tio n
c h a ra c te ris tic s

o f th e p o ly im id e p re c u rs o r film . T h e p re c u rs o r film e x h ib its a s tro n g a b s o rp tio n a t th e U V

w a v e le n g th s e m p lo y e d
in the present
e x p e r im e n ts . T h e in te n s ity
is e x p o n e n tia lly
a tte n u a te d a s a
function of thickness and at low er U V doses causes significant
u n d e re x p o s u re
n e a r th e
b o tto m
o f th e

film . U nderexposed re g io n s o f th e film e x h ib it h ig h e r d is s o lu tio n in th e d e v e lo p e r so lu tio n a n d c a u s e th e p ro file n a rro w in g[9 ].

T h e p a tte rn e d p e rc u rs o r fe a tu re s a r e c o n v e rte d to p o ly im id e v ia a th e rm a lly d riv e n im id iz a tio n p ro c e s s a t e le v a te d te m p e ra - tures. Baking

a t in te rm e d ia te te m p e ra tu re s
(2 0 0 "C -3 O O 0 C )

c a u s e s a n is o tro p ic s h rin k a g e in th e fe a tu re p ro file . In g e n e ra l, at these tem peratures, lateral shrinkage at the top is considera- b ly s m a lle r th a n n e a r th e b o tto m , i.e ., s h rin k a g e in

W ,,,
i s
3 0
s?
W rn in
-> .-
0
1 0
2 0
3 0
4 0
L IN E W ID T H( p r n )
(b )
F ig .4 .
A n is o tro p ic
s h rin k a g e o f a fe a tu re p ro file a fte r a2 0 0 "C , 6 0 -m in
bake. (a)SE M
o f a 1 2 -p m -w id e(W ,,, a fte r p a tte rn in g ) fe a tu re (fro m
th e
le ft) a s p a tte rn e d a n d a fte r th e 6 0 -m in b a k e . (b ) S h rin k a g e in W ,,, a n d W ,,,
a s a fu n c tio n o f lin e w id th .
2 0 0
4 0 0
"
2"
B A K ET E M P E R A T U R E ('C )
F ig .5 .
V ariatio n
i n
feature profile as a function
o f lin e w id th
and bake
te m p e ra tu re .
c o n s id e ra b ly
s m a lle r th a n
that for
W m in .T h is p re fe re n tia l
shrinkage inW m ina ls o c a u s e s a re d u c tio n in th e v a lu e o f W m in /
W ,,,.This phenom enon is especially pronounced for struc-

tu re s p a tte rn e d w ith lo w e r U V d o s e s . In F ig .4 w e p re s e n t th e percent reduction in W ,,,a n d W m ina s a fu n c tio n o f lin e w id th for sam ples baked

a t2 0 0 \u00b0C .A t h ig h
te m p e ra tu re s
such as
4 0 0 "C ,
th e
im id iz a tio n
p ro c e s s
re a c h e s
c o m p le tio n
a n d
c o n s e q u e n tly

s ig n ific a n t s h rin k a g e in th e to p la y e rs a ls o ta k e s place. T his preferential shrinkage in W ,,, decreases the extent o f in w a rd s k e w in g o f th e p ro file a n d in c re a s e sW m in /

W ,,,.I n
F ig .5
w e p re s e n t th e v a ria tio n
i n
the feature profile
as a
fu n c tio n o f b a k e te m p e ra tu re a n d fe a tu re lin e w id th .
In o rd e r to fu rth e r e lu c id a te th e o b s e rv e d p h e n o m e n o n o f
a n is o tro p ic
s h rin k a g e ,
1 3 -p m -th ic k
p re c u rs o r
film s
w ere
flo o d -e x p o s e d
w ith
U V
ra d ia tio n
a t
d iffe re n t
d o s e s .

T he exposed sam ples w ere baked at elevated tem peratures for6 0 m in.

S h rin k a g e
i n
th e
f i l m
th ic k n e s s
w as
m easured
a s
a
fu n c tio n
o f
e x p o s u re
d o s e
a n d
b a k e
te m p e ra tu re .
F ig .
6

sum m arizes the data. In general, increasing the exposure dose d e c re a s e s th e s h rin k a g e a t a g iv e n te m p e ra tu re . A t in te rm e d i- a te te m p e ra tu re s , d e p o ly m e riz a tio n a n d v o la tiliz a tio n o f th e p h o to s e n s itiv e

ester group and the solvent are expected to be th e p rim a ry c a u se s fo r th e sh rin k a g e o f th e film . T h e re fo re , th e d e p e n d e n c e o n th eU V

exposure suggests that the rate of
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