Copper has replaced Aluminum in several of the interconnect metallization techniques in recent years. The replacement of Aluminum with Copper is motivated by its higher conductivity which leads to lower resistance copper lines. In Copper metallization, there are several ways to deposit Copper onto the wafer. One common method which has gained popularity in recent years is Electroplating of copper. In Electroplating, the copper is treated as the anode and the wafer itself becomes the cathode.
The performance of an integrated circuit is greatly affected by the interconnecting wires which conduct the current. The effects not only include mere resistance as a factor. There are other considerations such as the parasitic capacitance effects, driving current through a large capacitive load such as a clock tree and sometimes the RC delay of the wire itself. This varying need of the process requirement (Rosenberg, et al., 2000) goads us t o replace t he current Al wit h Cu.
As an example of the resistivity of Copper to be less than that of Al, we shall consider the following case. \u201c The values of Cu/liner of about 0.5 ohms/link (<0.25 ohms/via) are about 2.5 times less than values for Al(Cu)/W and show very tight distributions\u201d (Rosenberg, et al., 2000)
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