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Aoptics-1-wave fronts

Aoptics-1-wave fronts

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Applied optics
W a v e fro n ts
W a v e fro n ts
Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University
Geometrical O
p
tics
p
In describing the propagation of
li
g
ht as a wave we need to
g
understand:
wavefronts:a surface passing
th
h
i t
f
th
t
th
roug
h
po
i
n
t
s o
f
a wave
th
a
t
have the same phase and
am
p
litude.
p
rays:a ray describes the
direction of wave propagation.
A
i
t
d i
l
A
ray
i
s a vec
t
or perpen
d i
cu
l
ar
to the wavefront.Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University
W
f
t
W
ave
f
ron
t
s
\u2022
W e c a n c h o s e to a s s o c ia te
W e c a n c h o s e to a s s o c ia te

the wavefronts with the instantaneous surfaces where the wave is at its maximum.

\u2022 Wavefronts travel outward
from the source at the speed
o f lig h t: c
o f lig h t: c
.
\u2022 Wavefronts propagate
p e rp e n d ic u la r to th e lo c a l
p e r p e n d ic u la r to th e lo c a l
wavefront surface.
Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University
L ig h t R a y s
L ig h t R a y s
\u2022 The propagation of the
wavefronts can be
d e s c r ib e d b y lig h t r a y s
d e s c r ib e d b y lig h t r a y s
.
\u2022 In free space, the light rays
tra v e l in s tra ig h t lin e s
tra v e l in s tra ig h t lin e s

,
perpendicular to the
wavefronts.

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University
The ray approximation in
geometric optics
\u2022Geometric optics: The study of the
propagation of light.
p
p
g
g

\u2022Ray approximation: In the ray
approximation, we assume that a
wave moving through a medium
travels in a straight line in the direction

o f its ra y s
o
f it
s rays.
Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University
Huygens\u2019 principle
\ue000Huygens\u2019 principle

Every point of a wave front may be considered the source of secondary
wavelets that spread out in all directions with a speed equal to the speed
of propagation of the wave.

P l
Plane waves
Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University
Huygens\u2019 principle (cont\u2019d)
At t
0
t h
f
t i
\ue000Huygens\u2019 principle for plane wave
\u2022
At t
=
0
,
t h
e wave
f
ron
t i
s
indicated by the plane AA\u2019
\u2022 The points are representative
f
t h
l t
sources for the wavelets

\u2022 After the wavelets have moved
a distance s\u2206t, a new plane
BB\u2019 can be drawn tangent to
the wavefronts

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University
Huygens\u2019 principle (cont\u2019d)
T h
i
\ue000Huygens\u2019 principle for spherical wave (cont\u2019d)
\u2022 The inner arc represents part
of the spherical wave
\u2022 The
p
oints are re
p
resentative
p
p
points where wavelets are
propagated
\u2022
T h e n e w w a v e fro n t is ta n g e n t
\u2022
T h e n e w w a v e fro n t is ta n g e n t
at each point to the wavelet
Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University
Huygens\u2019 principle (cont\u2019d)
T h
l
f
f l
t i
b
\ue000Huygens\u2019 principle for law of reflection
\u2022
T h
e
l
aw o
f
re
f l
ec
t i
on can
b

e
derived from Huygen\u2019s
Principle

A A \u2019 i
f
t
f i
id
t
\u2022 AA\u2019 is a wave front of incident
light
\u2022 The reflected wave front is CD
\u2022 Triangle ADC is congruent to
tria n g le A A
\u2019
C
tria n g le A A C
\u2022 Angles\u03b81 =\u03b81\u2019
\u2022 This is the law of reflection
Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University
Huygens\u2019 principle (cont\u2019d)
I
t i
\u2206t
1
f
A
\ue000Huygens\u2019 principle for law of refraction
\u2022
I
n
t i
me
\u2206t
, ray
1
moves
f
rom
A
to B and ray 2 moves from A\u2019
to C
F
t i
l
A A \u2019C
d ACB
AC
=
l

\u2022 From triangles AA\u2019C and ACB,
all the ratios in the law of
refraction can be found:

n1 sin\u03b81 = n2 sin\u03b82
2
2
1
1
sin
;
sin
t
v
t
v
\u2206
=
\u2206
=
\u03b8
\u03b8
l
l
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
,
,
sin
sin
nc
v
nc
v
t
v
t
v
=
=
\u2206
=
\u2206
\u2192
\u03b8
\u03b8
Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University
R e fle c tio n
R e fle c tio n
\u2022Reflection: When a light ray traveling in
o n e m e d iu m e n c o u n te rs a b o u n d a ry w ith
o n e m e d iu m e n c o u n te rs a b o u n d a ry w ith
another medium, part of the incident light
is reflected.

\u2013Specular reflection: Reflection of light from a
smoothsurface, where the reflected rays are
all parallelto each other.

\u2013Diffuse reflection: Reflection from any rough
surface, where the reflected rays travel in
randomdirections.

\u2013 we use the termreflection to mean specular
reflection.
Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University
Reflection and refraction
\ue000Reflection (cont\u2019d)
Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

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