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Aoptics-Matrix Optics

# Aoptics-Matrix Optics

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03/18/2014

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Matrix OpticsMatrix Otics
-
Geometrical light rays-Ray matrices and ray vectors-Matrices for various opticalcomponents-The Lens Maker’s Formula
-
Imaging and the Lens Law--Cylindrical lenses
Is geometrical optics the whole story?
. .Also, our ray pictures seemto iml that if we could
~
just remove all aberrations,we could focus a beam to agood spatial resolution.Not true.The smallestpossible focal spot is thewavelength,
λ
. Same for thebestsatialresolutionofan
>
λ

image. This is due todiffraction, which has notgeometrical optics.
Geometrical optics (ray optics) is thesimplest version of optics
.
Rayoptics

Ra Otics
axis
' , ,roughly, to k-vectors of light waves.Wewontworraboutthehase.

Each optical system will have an axis, and all light rays willbe assumed to propagate at small angles to it. This is calledtheParaxial Approximation.

A mirror deflects the optic axis into a new direction.This ring laser has an optic axis that scans out arectangle.
Optic axis
A ray propagating
e ene a rays reave o e reevan opc axs.
TheRa
in
,
θ
in

Vector
out
,
θ
out
A light ray can be defined by two co-ordinates:its position,
its slope,
θ
Optical axis
These parameters define aray vector ,which will change with distance and as
x

the ray propagates through optics.
θ
Ray Matrices
For many optical components, we can define 2 x 2ray matrices.An element’s effect on a ray is found by multiplying its ray vector.
ay marcescan describesimple and com-Optical system
2 x 2 Ray matrixplex systems.
in
x
A B
out
x

in
θ
C D
out
θ
These matrices are often (uncreatively) called ABCD Matrices.

Ray matrices as

derivatives
out iout out ininin n
x x x
θ θ
= +
out in iout ut on
x x
θ θ θ θ θ
= +
Since the displacements andangles are assumed to be small,
nn
derivatives.
out in
x x
out in
x
θ
spatialmagnification
We can writethese equations
out in
Bx xA
=

.
out in
out
θ
out
θ
angular
in
θ
in
x
magncaon
For cascaded elements, we simply multiplyray matrices.
inin
θ
out out
θ
x x x

321321
out in in
O O O O O O
θ θ θ
= =
be, but it makes sense when you think about it.

If
in
and
θ
in
are the position and slope upon entering, let
out
and
θ
out
betheositionandsloeafterroaatinfrom
z
0
to
.
out in inout in
x x z
θ θ
= +=
x,
θ
out
θ
out

Rewriting theseexpressions in matrix
z = 0
1
out in
x x z
=

out in
1=
zO

01
space
Ray Matrix for an Interface
At the interface, clearly:
out
=
in
.
θ
in
θ
out
in
out
Nowcalculate
θ
.
1
2

θ
Snell's Law says:
1
sin(
θ
in
)
=
2
sin(
θ
out
)which becomes for small angles:
1
θ
in
=
2
θ
out
θ
= n/
θ
10
O
=

12
0/
n n