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Aoptics-Matrix Optics

Aoptics-Matrix Optics

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Published by: api-3856548 on Nov 28, 2009
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03/18/2014

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Matrix OpticsMatrix Otics
-
Geometrical light rays-Ray matrices and ray vectors-Matrices for various opticalcomponents-The Lens Maker’s Formula
-
Imaging and the Lens Law--Cylindrical lenses
Is geometrical optics the whole story?
. .Also, our ray pictures seemto iml that if we could
~
 just remove all aberrations,we could focus a beam to agood spatial resolution.Not true.The smallestpossible focal spot is thewavelength,
λ
. Same for thebestsatialresolutionofan
>
λ
 
 
image. This is due todiffraction, which has notgeometrical optics.
Geometrical optics (ray optics) is thesimplest version of optics
.
Rayoptics
 
Ra Otics
axis
' , ,roughly, to k-vectors of light waves.Wewontworraboutthehase. 
 
Each optical system will have an axis, and all light rays willbe assumed to propagate at small angles to it. This is calledtheParaxial Approximation.
 
A mirror deflects the optic axis into a new direction.This ring laser has an optic axis that scans out arectangle.
Optic axis
A ray propagating
e ene a rays reave o e reevan opc axs.
TheRa
in 
 , 
θ
in 
 
 
Vector
out 
 , 
θ
out 
A light ray can be defined by two co-ordinates:its position,
its slope,
θ
Optical axis
These parameters define aray vector ,which will change with distance and as
 x
 
the ray propagates through optics.
θ 
Ray Matrices
For many optical components, we can define 2 x 2ray matrices.An element’s effect on a ray is found by multiplying its ray vector.
ay marcescan describesimple and com-Optical system
2 x 2 Ray matrixplex systems.
in
 x
A B
out 
 x
 
in
θ 
C D
out 
θ 
These matrices are often (uncreatively) called ABCD Matrices.
 
Ray matrices as
 
derivatives
out iout out ininin n
 x x x
θ θ 
= +
out in iout ut on
 x x
θ θ θ θ θ 
= +
Since the displacements andangles are assumed to be small,
nn
 derivatives.
out in
 x x
out in
 x
θ 
spatialmagnification
We can writethese equations
out in
 Bx xA
=
 
 
.
out in
out 
θ 
out 
θ 
angular 
in
θ 
in
 x
magncaon
For cascaded elements, we simply multiplyray matrices.
inin
θ 
out out 
θ 
 x x x
 
321321
out in in
O O O O O O
θ θ θ 
= =
 be, but it makes sense when you think about it.
Ray matrix for free space or a medium
 
If 
in 
and
θ
in 
are the position and slope upon entering, let
out 
and
θ
out 
betheositionandsloeafterroaatinfrom
z
0
to
. 
out in inout in
 x x z
θ θ 
= +=
x,
θ 
out 
θ 
out 
 
Rewriting theseexpressions in matrix
z = 0 
1 
out in
 x x z
=
 
out in
1=
 zO
 
 
01
space
Ray Matrix for an Interface
At the interface, clearly:
out 
=
in 
.
θ 
in 
θ 
out 
in 
out 
Nowcalculate
θ
.
1
2
 
θ
 Snell's Law says:
1
sin(
θ
in 
)
=
2
sin(
θ
out 
)which becomes for small angles:
1
θ
in 
=
2
θ
out 
θ 
= n/
θ 
10
O
=
 
12
0/
n n

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