IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS—PART C: APPLICATIONS AND REVIEWS, VOL. 42, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2012 1439
Model-Driven Development of ReconﬁgurableProtocol Stack for Networked Control Systems
Chunjie Zhou, Hui Chen, Naixue Xiong
, Member, IEEE
, Xiongfeng Huang,and Athanasios V. Vasilakos
, Senior Member, IEEE
—Innetworkedcontrolsystems(NCS),theperformancedegradation introduced by the heterogeneous and dynamic envi-ronmenthasintensiﬁedtheneedforreconﬁgurableprotocolstacks(RPS). In this paper, an IEC61499-based method is proposed forthe model-driven development of RPS. The method is enabled bydeﬁninganovelRPSfunctionblock(FB),whichuniﬁesthecommu-nication behavior and interface of nodes in NCS. Beyond existingcommunication FBs in IEC61499, the parameter reconﬁgurationof routing and scheduling table in RPS FB is highlighted as thecore of communication layer function to adapt environment andsystem variations. Furthermore, the method allows for the codereconﬁguration on Java algorithms in RPS FB under different ap-plication requirements. Through porting the Java virtual machineondifferentplatforms,thecodereconﬁgurationisimplementedbyreloading the .class ﬁle for a speciﬁed protocol FB. A case studyon the embedded platform, such as DSP/BIOS and ARM/Linux,is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed reconﬁguration method for maintaining stable andpredictable behavior in NCS.
—IEC61499, model-driven development, net-worked control system (NCS), protocol stack, reconﬁguration.
NETWORKED control system (NCS) uses a distributedcontrol architecture where sensors, actuators, and con-trollers are interconnected through a real-time network . Thecommunicationprotocolstackthatdirectlyaffectstheperceivedcommunication quality of service (QoS) plays a critical role indetermining the system performance. However, a uniﬁed com-munication protocol standard is not available at present for thereasons of commercial beneﬁts, history, and multiapplicationobjects . In addition, the availability of communication re-sources may change unexpectedly , due to the variety of
Manuscript received April 30, 2011; revised September 16, 2011; acceptedFebruary 28, 2012. Date of publication May 1, 2012; date of current versionDecember 17, 2012. This work was supported in part by the National NaturalScience Foundation of China under Grant 61074145 and Grant 60674081. Thispaper was recommended by Associate Editor R. W. Brennan.C. Zhou, H. Chen, and X. Huang are with the Key Laboratory of Min-istry of Education for Image Processing and Intelligent Control, Departmentof Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science andTechnology, Wuhan 430074, China (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org).N. Xiong is with the Department of Computer Science, Georgia State Uni-versity, Atlanta, GA 30303 USA (e-mail: email@example.com).A.V.VasilakosiswiththeDepartmentofComputerandTelecommunicationsEngineering, University of Western Macedonia, 50100 Kozani, Greece (e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org).Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available onlineat http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TSMCC.2012.2190593
applicationdemands,orthenetworkdisturbance.Consequently,the control algorithm in the system will not render the intendedresults if certain QoS conditions (e.g., time delay) are not ob-served. It is inherently difﬁcult to guarantee punctuality andpredictable QoS, because QoS objects of different protocols arehard to be coordinated in a whole when lacking of a uniﬁedarchitecture that speciﬁes functional and interactions modelstherein.To cope with this challenge, there has been an increasingemphasis on developing reconﬁgurable protocol stacks (RPS)in such a distributed, heterogeneous, and changeable environ-ment , . Protocol stack reconﬁguration is the implementa-tion of a software environment that supports ﬂexible manage-ment of protocol components. Reconﬁguration behaviors, suchas parameter reassignment, service updating, and functionalityreplacement, will be executed once the environment constraintsor system requirements change.Traditionally, most reconﬁguration approaches enumeratedall possible strategies that were in general coded of devices,suchasthe“ComScriptenvironment”representedbyMuhugusa
 and the “feedback control framework” by Eracar andKokar . Current software engineering such as model-drivendevelopment can facilitate the development and deployment of complex protocol reconﬁguration process. Motivated by theseresearch works, we proposed architectures for the functionalityveriﬁcationandperformanceevaluationofRPSforNCS,.The reconﬁguration services for industrial communication stan-dards were discussed, e.g., Fieldbus  and Industrial Eth-ernet . However, under the RPS concept, the platform-independent implementation and the compatibility with indus-trialprogramminglanguageIEC61131-3isstillachallenge.Thestandard IEC61499 has addressed these issues, which providesseamless interface for IEC61131-3 applications and could beregarded as a model-driven development approach for the rapiddeployment of real-time distributed automation systems. Thereconﬁguration that is deﬁned by IEC61499 could be automaticwithout service interruption or with a minimal one , .In this paper, we develop a model-driven framework to im-plement a reconﬁguration scheme for protocol stacks of NCS.ThestandardIEC61499isusedtobuildFBsrepresentingdiffer-ent protocol algorithms and interfaces. These protocol FBs arecomposed to be a uniﬁed RPS composite FB, which providesa uniﬁed architecture for industrial communication and dealswith the heterogeneous and dynamic environment by inherit-ing the advantages of Java and IEC61131-3. Both parameterand code reconﬁguration are enabled with the help of FunctionBlock Development Kit (FBDK), which is the one of famous
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