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conic_sections

# conic_sections

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07/05/2010

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GITIMH3 94107
Conic Sections
Page 1
Introduction
The circle, hyperbola, ellipse and parabola are Conic Sections, they are called this
because they come from the cross-sections and a cone as shown below.

A conic is the locus of a point \u2018P\u2019 which moves in a plane so that its distance from a
given point, \u2018S\u2019 (focus), and its distance from a fixed line, \u2018Z\u2019 (directrix), always are in
the same ratio, that is

Equation:
e
PM
PS\ue000

PS = Distance from point \u2018P\u2019 to focus \u2018S\u2019
PM = Distance from point \u2018P\u2019 to a point \u2018M\u2019 on the directrix \u2018Z\u2019
e = Eccentricity, the ratio

When,
e=1
i.e. PS = PM,the conic is aParabola
e < 1 (e\ue001 0)i.e. PS < PM, the conic is aE llipse
e>1
i.e. PS > PM,the conic is aHyperbol a
Luke Cole
Page 1
S
P
Z
M
GITIMH3 94107
Conic Sections
Page 2
Ellipse (e < 1)
General Form:
1
by
ax
22
22
\ue000
\ue001
Where,
a >b
Proof:
Finding Focus:
Here,AA\u2019 = 2.a
SA = e.AM
...(1)
SA\u2019 = e.A\u2019M
...(2)
(2)\ue003 (1):
SA\u2019\ue003 SA = e(A\u2019M\ue003 AM)
SA\u2019\ue003 SA = 2.a.e
...(3)
(2) + (1):
SA\u2019 + SA = 2.a
...(4)
(4)\ue003 (3):
2.SA = 2.a\ue003 2.a.e
SA = a\ue003 a.e
Since,OS = OA\ue003 SA
OS = a.e
\ue004
S(\ue005a.e, 0)
Finding Equation:
So,
PS2 = e2.PM2
\ue000
\ue001
\ue000
\ue001
\ue000
\ue001
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
e
1
a
y
e
1
x
x
.
e
x
.
e
.
a
.
2
a
y
e
.
a
x
.
e
.
a
.
2
x
x
ea
e
y
e
.
a
x
\ue002
\ue000
\ue001
\ue002
\ue001
\ue002
\ue000
\ue001
\ue001
\ue002
\ue003\ue004\ue005
\ue006\ue007\ue008\ue002
\ue000
\ue001
\ue002
\ue004
1
by
ax
22
22
\ue000
\ue001
Where,
\ue000
\ue001
2
2
2
e
1
a
b
\ue003
\ue000
Luke Cole
Page 2
y
P
M
A
S\u2019
S
A
x
Z\u2019
Z
\ue000
\ue001
2
2
2
e
1
a
b
\ue001
\ue000

Centre\ue00c (0, 0)
Major axis = 2.a
Minor axis = 2.b

Focus\ue00c (\ue005a.e, 0)
Directrix\ue00c
e
a
x\ue001
\ue000

Finding Directrix:
Now,OZ = OA + AZ
Since,AS = e.AZ

e
a
OZ
e
e
.
a
a
a
OZ
e
AS
a
OZ
\ue000
\ue003
\ue002
\ue000
\ue002
\ue000
\ue004
Directrix\ue00c
e
a
x\ue001
\ue000
GITIMH3 94107
Conic Sections
Page 3
General Form:
1
by
ax
22
22
\ue000
\ue001
Where,
b >a
Parametric Equation:
Equation:
x = a.cos\ue00d
y = b.sin\ue00d
Proof:
Using parametric equations of the circles:
\ue004
x = a.cos\ue00d
\ue004
y = b.sin\ue00d
Luke Cole
Page 3
M
y
Z
B
S
x
S\u2019
Z\u2019
B
\ue000
\ue001
2
2
2
e
1
b
a
\ue003
\ue000

Centre\ue00c (0, 0)
Major axis = 2.b
Minor axis = 2.a

Focus\ue00c (0,\ue005b.e)
Directrix\ue00c
eb
y\ue001
\ue000
P
\ue001
a
\ue000b

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