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Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet

De\ufb01nitions

Series

f(n) = O(g(n))

i\ufb00\u2203 positivec, n0 such that

0\u2264f (n)\u2264cg(n)\u2200n \u2265n0.

n

\ue01d

i=1

i=n(n+ 1)

2

,

n

\ue01d

i=1

i2=n(n+ 1)(2n+ 1)

6

,

n

\ue01d

i=1

i3=n2( n+ 1)2

4

.

In general:

n

\ue01d

i=1

im=1

m+1

\ue00d

(n + 1)m+1\u22121 \u2212n

\ue01d

i=1

\ue000

(i + 1)m+1\u2212im+1\u2212 (m + 1)im

\ue001\ue00e

n\u22121

\ue01d

i=1

im=1

m+1

m

\ue01d

k=0

\ue00b

m+1

k

\ue00c

Bknm+1\u2212k .

Geometric series:

n

\ue01d

i=0

ci=cn+1\u22121

c\u22121, c\ue002= 1 ,

\u221e

\ue01d

i=0

ci=1

1\u2212c,

\u221e

\ue01d

i=1

ci=c

1\u2212c,|c| <1,

n

\ue01d

i=0

ici=ncn+2\u2212(n+ 1)cn+1+ c

(c\u2212 1)2

, c\ue002= 1 ,

\u221e

\ue01d

i=0

ici=

c

(1\u2212c)2,|c| <1.

Harmonic series:

Hn=

n

\ue01d

i=1

1i,

n

\ue01d

i=1

iHi=n(n+ 1)

2

Hn\u2212n(n\u22121)

4

.

n

\ue01d

i=1

Hi= (n+ 1)Hn\u2212 n,

n

\ue01d

i=1

\ue00b

i

m

\ue00c

Hi=

\ue00b

n+1

m+1\ue00c

\ue00b

Hn+1\u22121

m+1

\ue00c

.

f(n) = \u2126(g(n))

i\ufb00\u2203 positivec, n0 such that

f(n)\u2265 cg(n)\u2265 0\u2200n\u2265 n0.

f(n) = \u0398(g(n))

i\ufb00f(n) =O(g(n)) and

f(n) = \u2126(g(n)).

f(n) = o(g(n))

i\ufb00 limn\u2192\u221ef (n)/g(n) = 0.

lim

n\u2192\u221ean= a

i\ufb00\u2200\ue000 > 0,\u2203n0 such that

|an\u2212a|< \ue000, \u2200n \u2265n0.

supS

leastb\u2208R such thatb\u2265 s,

\u2200s \u2208S.

infS

greatestb\u2208R such thatb\u2264

s,\u2200s\u2208 S.

lim inf

n\u2192\u221ean

lim

n\u2192\u221einf{ai |i \u2265n, i \u2208N}.

lim sup

n\u2192\u221ean

lim

n\u2192\u221esup{ai |i \u2265n, i \u2208N}.

\ue000

nk

\ue001

Combinations: Sizek sub-

sets of a sizen set.

\ue002

nk

\ue003

Stirling numbers (1st kind): Arrangements of ann ele- ment set intok cycles.

1.

\ue00b

nk

\ue00c

=

n!

(n\u2212 k)!k!,

2.

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue00b

nk

\ue00c

= 2n,

3.

\ue00b

nk

\ue00c

=

\ue00b

n

n\u2212 k

\ue00c,

4.

\ue00b

nk

\ue00c

=nk

\ue00b

n\u22121

k\u22121

\ue00c

,

5.

\ue00b

nk

\ue00c

=

\ue00b

n\u22121

k

\ue00c

+

\ue00b

n\u22121

k\u22121

\ue00c,

6.

\ue00b

n

m

\ue00c\ue00b

mk

\ue00c

=

\ue00b

nk

\ue00c\ue00b

n\u2212 k

m\u2212 k

\ue00c

,

7.

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue00b

r+ k

k

\ue00c

=

\ue00b

r+ n+1

n

\ue00c,

8.

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue00b

k

m

\ue00c

=

\ue00b

n+1

m+1\ue00c

,

9.

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue00b

r

k

\ue00c\ue00b

s

n\u2212 k

\ue00c

=

\ue00b

r+ s

n

\ue00c,

10.

\ue00b

nk

\ue00c

= (\u22121)k

\ue00b

k\u2212 n\u22121

k

\ue00c

,

11.

\ue00f

n1

\ue010

=

\ue00f

nn

\ue010

= 1,

12.

\ue00f

n2

\ue010

= 2n\u22121\u22121,

13.

\ue00f

nk

\ue010

=k

\ue00f

n\u22121

k

\ue010

+

\ue00f

n\u22121

k\u22121

\ue010,

\ue004

nk

\ue005

Stirling numbers (2nd kind): Partitions of ann element set intok non-empty sets.

\ue006

nk

\ue007

1st order Eulerian numbers:

Permutations\u03c01\u03c02...\u03c0non

{1, 2,...,n}withk ascents.

\ue006

\ue006

nk

\ue007

\ue007

2nd order Eulerian numbers.

Cn

Catalan Numbers: Binary

trees withn + 1 vertices.

14.

\ue00d

n1

\ue00e

= (n\u2212 1)!,

15.

\ue00d

n2

\ue00e

= (n\u2212 1)!Hn\u22121,

16.

\ue00d

nn

\ue00e

= 1,

17.

\ue00d

nk

\ue00e

\u2265

\ue00f

nk

\ue010

,

18.

\ue00d

nk

\ue00e

= (n\u2212 1)\ue00d

n\u22121

k

\ue00e

+

\ue00d

n\u22121

k\u22121

\ue00e

,

19.

\ue00f

n

n\u22121

\ue010

=

\ue00d

n

n\u22121

\ue00e

=

\ue00b

n2

\ue00c,

20.

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue00d

nk

\ue00e

=n!,

21.Cn=1

n+1

\ue00b

2n

n

\ue00c

,

22.

\ue011

n0

\ue012

=

\ue011

n

n\u22121

\ue012

= 1,

23.

\ue011

nk

\ue012

=

\ue011

n

n\u22121 \u2212 k

\ue012,

24.

\ue011

nk

\ue012

= (k + 1)\ue011

n\u22121

k

\ue012

+ (n\u2212 k)\ue011

n\u22121

k\u22121

\ue012

,

25.

\ue011

0

k

\ue012

=

\ue024

1 ifk=0,

0 otherwise

26.

\ue011

n1

\ue012

= 2n\u2212n \u22121,

27.

\ue011

n2

\ue012

= 3n\u2212 (n + 1)2n +

\ue00b

n+1

2

\ue00c

,

28.xn=

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue011

nk

\ue012\ue00b

x+ k

n

\ue00c

,

29.

\ue011

n

m

\ue012

=

m

\ue01d

k=0

\ue00b

n+1

k

\ue00c

(m + 1\u2212k)n(\u22121)k,

30.m!\ue00f

n

m

\ue010

=

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue011

nk

\ue012\ue00b

k

n\u2212 m\ue00c

,

31.

\ue011

n

m

\ue012

=

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue00f

nk

\ue010\ue00bn\u2212 k

m

\ue00c

(\u22121)n\u2212k\u2212mk!,

32.

\ue011

\ue011

n0

\ue012

\ue012

= 1,

33.

\ue011

\ue011

nn

\ue012

\ue012

= 0 forn\ue002= 0,

34.

\ue011

\ue011

nk

\ue012

\ue012

= (k + 1)\ue011

\ue011

n\u22121

k

\ue012

\ue012

+ (2n\u2212 1\u2212k)\ue011

\ue011

n\u22121

k\u22121

\ue012

\ue012,

35.

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue011

\ue011

nk

\ue012

\ue012

=(2n)n

2n,

36.

\ue00f

x

x\u2212 n

\ue010

=

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue011

\ue011

nk

\ue012

\ue012\ue00bx+ n\u22121 \u2212 k

2n

\ue00c,

37.

\ue00f

n+1

m+1

\ue010

=

\ue01d

k

\ue00b

nk

\ue00c\ue00f

k

m

\ue010

=

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue00f

k

m

\ue010

(m + 1)n\u2212k,

Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet

Identities Cont.

Trees

38.

\ue00d

n+1

m+1

\ue00e

=

\ue01d

k

\ue00d

nk

\ue00e\ue00b

k

m

\ue00c

=

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue00d

k

m

\ue00e

nn\u2212k=n!

n

\ue01d

k=0

1

k!

\ue00d

k

m

\ue00e

,

39.

\ue00d

x

x\u2212 n

\ue00e

=

n

\ue01d

k=0

\ue011

\ue011

nk

\ue012

\ue012\ue00bx+ k

2n

\ue00c

,

40.

\ue00f

n

m

\ue010

=

\ue01d

k

\ue00b

nk

\ue00c\ue00f

k+1

m+1

\ue010(\u22121)n\u2212k,

41.

\ue00d

n

m

\ue00e

=

\ue01d

k

\ue00d

n+1

k+1

\ue00e\ue00b

k

m

\ue00c

(\u22121)m\u2212k,

42.

\ue00f

m+ n+1

m

\ue010

=

m

\ue01d

k=0

k

\ue00f

n+ k

k

\ue010,

43.

\ue00d

m+ n+1

m

\ue00e

=

m

\ue01d

k=0

k(n+ k)\ue00d

n+ k

k

\ue00e

,

44.

\ue00b

n

m

\ue00c

=

\ue01d

k

\ue00f

n+1

k+1

\ue010\ue00d

k

m

\ue00e

(\u22121)m\u2212k,45.(n\u2212 m)!\ue00b

n

m

\ue00c

=

\ue01d

k

\ue00d

n+1

k+1

\ue00e\ue00f

k

m

\ue010(\u22121)m\u2212k,for n\u2265 m,

46.

\ue00f

n

n\u2212 m

\ue010

=

\ue01d

k

\ue00b

m\u2212 n

m+ k

\ue00c\ue00b

m+ n

n+ k

\ue00c\ue00d

m+ k

k

\ue00e

,

47.

\ue00d

n

n\u2212 m

\ue00e

=

\ue01d

k

\ue00b

m\u2212 n

m+ k

\ue00c\ue00b

m+ n

n+ k

\ue00c\ue00f

m+ k

k

\ue010,

48.

\ue00f

n

\ue001+ m

\ue010\ue00b

\ue001+ m

\ue001

\ue00c

=

\ue01d

k

\ue00f

k\ue001

\ue010\ue00f

n\u2212 k

m

\ue010\ue00b

nk

\ue00c,

49.

\ue00d

n

\ue001+ m

\ue00e\ue00b\ue001+ m

\ue001

\ue00c

=

\ue01d

k

\ue00d

k\ue001

\ue00e\ue00d

n\u2212 k

m

\ue00e\ue00bnk

\ue00c

.

Every tree withn vertices hasn\u2212 1 edges.

Kraft

inequal- ity: If the depths of the leaves of a binary tree are

d1,...,dn:

n

\ue01d

i=1

2\u2212di\u2264 1,

and equality holds only if every in- ternal node has 2 sons.

Recurrences

Master method:

T(n) =aT(n/b)+f(n), a\u22651,b>1

If\u2203\ue000 > 0 such thatf (n) =O(nlogba\u2212\ue000)

then

T(n) = \u0398(nlogba).

Iff (n) = \u0398(nlogba) then

T(n) = \u0398(nlogbalog2n).

If\u2203\ue000 > 0 such thatf (n) = \u2126(nlogba+\ue000), and\u2203c < 1 such thataf (n/b)\u2264cf (n) for largen, then

T(n) = \u0398(f(n)).

Substitution (example): Consider the

following recurrence

Ti+1= 22i\u00b7T 2

i, T1= 2 .

Note thatTiis always a power of two.

Letti= log2Ti. Then we have

ti+1= 2i +2ti, t1= 1 .

Letui=ti/2i. Dividing both sides of

the previous equation by 2i+1we get

ti+1

2i+1=2i

2i+1+ti

2i.

Substituting we \ufb01nd

ui+1=12 +ui,

u1=12 ,

which is simplyui=i/2. So we \ufb01nd

thatTihas the closed formTi= 2i2i\u22121

.

Summing factors (example): Consider

the following recurrence

T(n) = 3T(n/2) +n, T(1) = 1.

Rewrite so that all terms involvingT

are on the left side

T(n)\u2212 3T(n/2) = n.

Now expand the recurrence, and choose a factor which makes the left side \u201ctele- scope\u201d

1\ue000

T(n)\u2212 3T(n/2) = n\ue001

3\ue000

T(n/2)\u2212 3T(n/4) = n/2\ue001

...

...

...

3log2n\u22121

\ue000

T(2)\u2212 3T(1) = 2\ue001

Letm = log2n. Summing the left side

we getT (n)\u2212 3mT(1) = T(n)\u2212 3m=

T(n)\u2212 nkwherek = log2 3\u2248 1.58496.

Summing the right side we get

m\u22121

\ue01d

i=0

n

2i3i =n

m\u22121

\ue01d

i=0

\ue000

32

\ue001i.

Letc =32. Then we have

n

m\u22121

\ue01d

i=0

ci= n

\ue00b

cm\u22121

c\u22121

\ue00c

= 2n(clog2n\u22121)

= 2n(c(k\u22121) logcn\u22121)

= 2nk\u22122n,

and soT (n) = 3nk\u22122n. Full history re- currences can often be changed to limited history ones (example): Consider

Ti= 1+

i\u22121

\ue01d

j=0

Tj , T0= 1 .

Note that

Ti+1= 1+

i

\ue01d

j=0

Tj .

Subtracting we \ufb01nd

Ti+1\u2212Ti= 1+

i

\ue01d

j=0

Tj\u22121 \u2212i\u22121

\ue01d

j=0

Tj

=Ti.

And soTi+1= 2Ti= 2i+1 .

Generating functions:

1. Multiply both sides of the equa-

tion byxi.

2. Sum both sides over alli for

which the equation is valid.

3. Choose a generating function

G(x). Usually G(x) =

\ue01b\u221ei=0xigi.

3. Rewrite the equation in terms of

the generating functionG(x).

4. Solve forG(x).

5. The coe\ufb03cient ofxiinG(x) isgi.

Example:

gi+1= 2gi+1, g0 = 0.

Multiply and sum:

\ue01d

i\u22650

gi+1xi=

\ue01d

i\u22650

2gixi +

\ue01d

i\u22650

xi.

We chooseG(x) =

\ue01b

i\u22650xigi. Rewrite

in terms ofG(x):

G(x)\u2212 g0

x

= 2G (x )+

\ue01d

i\u22650

xi.

Simplify:

G(x)

x= 2G(x) +1

1\u2212x.

Solve forG(x):

G(x) =

x

(1\u2212x)(1\u2212 2x).

Expand this using partial fractions:

G(x) = x

\ue00b

2

1\u2212 2x\u22121

1\u2212x

\ue00c

=x

\ue013

\ue0192

\ue01d

i\u22650

2ixi\u2212

\ue01d

i\u22650

xi

\ue014

\ue01a

=

\ue01d

i\u22650

(2i+1\u2212 1)xi+1.

Sogi= 2i\u2212 1.

Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet

\u03c0\u22483.14159,

e\u22482.71828,

\u03b3\u22480.57721,

\u03c6=1+\u221a5

2

\u22481.61803,

\u02c6

\u03c6=1\u2212\u221a5

2

\u2248\u2212.61803

i

2i

pi

General

Probability

1

2

2

Bernoulli Numbers (Bi = 0, oddi\ue002

= 1):

B0= 1,B1=\u22121

2,B2 =16,B4 =\u22121

30,

B6=1

42,B8 =\u22121

30,B10 =5

66.

Change of base, quadratic formula:

logbx=logax

logab,

\u2212b \u00b1\u221ab2\u22124ac

2a

.

Euler\u2019s numbere:

e= 1+12+ 16+ 1

24+1

120+\u00b7\u00b7\u00b7

lim

n\u2192\u221e

\ue009

1+x

n

\ue00an

=ex.

\ue000

1+1

n

\ue001n< e <

\ue000

1+1

n

\ue001n+1.

\ue000

1+1

n

\ue001n=e\u2212e

2n+11e

24n2\u2212O

\ue00b

1

n3

\ue00c

.

Harmonic numbers:

1,32, 11

6,25

12,137

60,49

20,363

140,761

280,7129

2520,...

lnn < Hn<ln n+1,

Hn= lnn +\u03b3 +O

\ue00b

1

n

\ue00c

.

Factorial, Stirling\u2019s approximation:

1, 2, 6, 24, 120, 720, 5040, 40320, 362880,...

n! =\u221a2\u03c0n\ue00b

ne

\ue00cn\ue00b

1+\u0398

\ue00b

1

n

\ue00c\ue00c

.

Ackermann\u2019s function and inverse:

a(i, j) =

\ue015

\ue017

\ue016

2j

i= 1

a(i\u22121,2)

j= 1

a(i\u22121, a(i, j\u22121)) i, j\u22652

\u03b1(i) = min{j| a(j, j)\u2265 i}.

Continuous distributions: If

Pr[a < X < b] =

\ue01f

b

ap(x) dx,

thenp is the probability density function of

X. If

Pr[X < a] =P (a),

thenP is the distribution function ofX. If

Pand pboth exist then

P(a) =

\ue01f

a

\u2212\u221ep(x) dx.

Expectation: IfX is discrete

E[g(X )] =

\ue01d

x

g(x) Pr[X= x].

IfX continuous then

E[g(X )] =

\ue01f

\u221e

\u2212\u221eg(x)p(x) dx=

\ue01f

\u221e

\u2212\u221eg(x) dP(x).

Variance, standard deviation:

VAR[X ] =E[X2]\u2212E[X ]2,

\u03c3=

\ue025

VAR[X ].

For eventsA andB:

Pr[A\u2228 B] = Pr[A] + Pr[B]\u2212 Pr[A\u2227 B]

Pr[A\u2227 B] = Pr[A]\u00b7 Pr[B],

i\ufb00A andB are independent.

Pr[A|B] =Pr[A\u2227 B]

Pr[B]

For random variablesX andY :

E[X\u00b7 Y ] = E[X ]\u00b7 E[Y ],

ifX andY are independent.

E[X +Y ] = E[X ]+ E[Y ],

E[cX ] =c E[X ].

Bayes\u2019 theorem:

Pr[Ai|B] =

Pr[B|Ai] Pr[Ai]

\ue01b

nj=1Pr[Aj ] Pr[B|Aj ].

Inclusion-exclusion:

Pr

\ue022

n

\ue021

i=1

Xi

\ue023

=

n

\ue01d

i=1

Pr[Xi] +

n

\ue01d

k=2(\u22121)k+1

\ue01d

ii <\u00b7\u00b7\u00b7<ik

Pr

\ue022

k

\ue020

j=1

Xij

\ue023

.

Moment inequalities:

Pr

\ue002|X| \u2265\u03bbE[X]\ue003

\u22641

\u03bb,

Pr

\ue022\ue008

\ue008X\u2212E[X]\ue008

\ue008

\u2265\u03bb \u00b7\u03c3

\ue023

\u22641

\u03bb2.

Geometric distribution:

Pr[X =k] =pqk\u22121,

q= 1\u2212 p,

E[X ] =

\u221e

\ue01d

k=1

kpqk\u22121=1

p.

2

4

3

3

8

5

4

16

7

5

32

11

6

64

13

7

128

17

8

256

19

9

512

23

10

1,024

29

11

2,048

31

12

4,096

37

13

8,192

41

14

16,384

43

15

32,768

47

16

65,536

53

17

131,072

59

18

262,144

61

19

524,288

67

20

1,048,576

71

21

2,097,152

73

22

4,194,304

79

23

8,388,608

83

24

16,777,216

89

25

33,554,432

97

26

67,108,864

101

27

134,217,728

103

28

268,435,456

107

Binomial distribution:

Pr[X =k] =

\ue00b

nk

\ue00c

pkqn\u2212k,

q= 1\u2212 p,

E[X ] =

n

\ue01d

k=1

k

\ue00b

nk

\ue00c

pk qn\u2212k= np.

Poisson distribution:

Pr[X =k] =e\u2212\u03bb\u03bbk

k!,E[X] = \u03bb.

Normal (Gaussian) distribution:

p(x) =1

\u221a2\u03c0\u03c3e\u2212(x\u2212\u00b5)2 /2\u03c32

,E[X] = \u00b5.

The \u201ccoupon collector\u201d: We are given a random coupon each day, and there aren di\ufb00erent types of coupons. The distribu- tion of coupons is uniform. The expected number of days to pass before we to col- lect alln types is

nHn.

29

536,870,912

109

30

1,073,741,824

113

31

2,147,483,648

127

32

4,294,967,296

131

Pascal\u2019s Triangle

1

1 1

12 1

1 3 3 1

1 4 6 4 1

1 5 10 10 5 1

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1

1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

1 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 1

1 10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10 1

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