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Semantic Networks

# Semantic Networks

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12/17/2012

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SEMANTIC NETS
Semantic networks are knowledge representation schemes involving nodes and links (arcs or arrows) between nodes. The nodes represent objects or concepts and the links representrelations between nodes. The links are directed and labeled; thus, a semantic network is adirected graphThis network contains example of both isa and instance relations, as well as domain specificrelations like team and uniform-color. In this network, we could use inheritance to derive theadditional relation -has-part(pee-Wee-Reese, Nose)
1.
Intersection Search:
Semantics nets were used to find relationships among objects by spreading activation out from each of the two nodes and seeing where theactivation met. This process is called Intersection Search. Using this process, it is possible to use the network of above figure to answer questions such as “What is theconnection between Brooklyn-Dodgers and blue?
2.
Representing Non-binary Predicates:
Semantic nets are a natural way to representrelationships that would appear as ground instances of binary predicates. Some of thearcs from the figure could be represented in logic asisa(Person,Mammal)instance(Pee-Wee-Reese, Person)team(Pee-Wee-Reese,Brooklyn-Dodgers)uniform-color(Pee-Wee-Reese, Blue)LIMITATIONS

1.
Binary relations are usually easy to represent, but some times is difficult.E.g. try torepresent the sentence:"John caused trouble to the party".2.Quantified statements are very hard for semantic nets. E.g.:
"Every dog has bitten a postman"
"Every dog has bitten every postman"Solution: Partitioned semantic networks

can represent quantified statements.
Partitioned semantic networks
Hendrix developed the so-called
partitioned semantic network
to represent the difference between the description of an individual object or process and the description of a set of objects. The set description involves
quantification
.The central idea of partitioning is to allow groups, nodes and arcs to be bundled together intounits called
spaces
Every node and every arc of a network belongs to (or lies in/on) one or more spaces. Some spaces are used to encode 'background information' or generic relations;others are used to deal with specifics called 'scratch' space.Suppose that we wish to make a specific statement about a dog, Danny, who has bitten a postman, Peter: "Danny the dog bit Peter the postman"Hendrix’s Partitioned network would express this statement as an ordinary semantic network:The partitioning of a semantic network renders them more
, in that one can distinguish between individuals and sets of individuals, and
indirectly more
by way of controlling the search space by delineating semantic networks.Hendrix's partitioned semantic networks-oriented formalism has been used in building naturallanguage front-ends for data bases and for programs to deduct information from databases.