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Published by api-3701567

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Published by: api-3701567 on Nov 29, 2009
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Topic : Lubrication
Function of a lubricant

A lubricant will reduce friction and wear, it will keep metal surfaces clean by
carrying away possible deposits and providing a seal to keep out dirt. A
lubricating oil will carry away the heat generated in bearings and gears, etc.,
preventing overheating, seizure and possible breakdown.

Three types of wear
1. Abrasive wear
Abrasive wear in an engine can be caused by
rust particles finding their way between moving surface
wear metal particles trapped between moving surface
catalytic fines entering the combustion chamber with the fuel during
2. Adhesive wear

When piston reaches TDC, the boundary lubrication fails to protect the surfaces.
Spot heat builds up and metal to metal adhesion occurs. This results in metal
tear and hard particles scratching the well machined surface, leading to a
condition calledsc uf fi n g.

3. Corrosive wear
Sulphuric acid formed during combustion corrode the liner surfaces.
ref to page 48 Diesel Engines 3rd Edition, A J Wharton
.Lubrication of slow speed diesel engine
The lubrication of a slow speed cross-head engine involves three distinctly
different areas
R.B, 22.12.2004
Singapore Maritime Academy
Singapore Polytechnic
Topic : Lubrication
Two stroke engines
have either water
cooled or oil cooled pistons.

Engines with water cooled pistons may be lubricated with a straight mineral oil inhibited with anti-rust and anti-oxidant additives (R & O).

For oil cooled pistons, a more sophisticated lubricant with detergency and a

high resistance to thermal and oxidation degradation is required. This is because of the higher temperatures, the associated oxidation problems and the tendency for carbonaceous material to build up on the underside of the piston crown.

Most modern cross-head engines have oil cooled pistons. As a consequence, most oil companies supply only a premium type crankcase oil, normally with a TBN around 5, which can be used for both engine types.

Whatever the oil type, the dangers are the same, and these stem from
contamination of the oil from various possible sources.
R.B, 22.12.2004
Singapore Maritime Academy
Singapore Polytechnic
2 stroke diesel engine 1
1Circulating system
which takes care of the bearings
and moving parts in the crankcase.
Cylinder system lubrication which
takes care of the lubrication
between the liner and the piston rings.
lubrication of turbo chargers,
hydraulic governors, hydraulic
valve actuators and the
turning gear.
Topic : Lubrication
The Cylinder Lubricating System
The Cylinder lubricating system uses a different type of lubricant as the job it is
required to perform differs from that of the system oil.
a. Type of Oil Used in Cylinder Lubricating System
The cylinder lubricant must be of a higher viscosity so that it can form a good
lubricating film between the liner and the piston rings.
It must also withstand the heat variations in the combustion area and must deal
with the combustion products.
Under normal running conditions this oil will typically be an alkaline cylinder
lubricating oil of SAE 50 viscosity.

The alkalinity is indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number ) rating of the lubricant. The TBN value most suitable for the cylinder lubricating oil depends largely on the sulphur content of the fuel used. Typical values for sulphur content of 0.5 to 1% may be between 20 to 25 TBN. For sulphur content over 1.5% the TBN number may be 70 or higher.

b. Using the Correct Feed Rate for Cylinder Lubrication
R.B, 22.12.2004
Singapore Maritime Academy
Singapore Polytechnic

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