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6acb

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Module : Electrical Engineering
MT 3011
Topic : Air Circuit Breaker and Generator Protection
_________________________________________________________________________________
Air Circuit Breaker and Generator Protection
Aim
Understand the principle of operation of Air Circuit Breaker and Generator
Protection.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
\u2022
Sketch the electrical schematic diagram of an air circuit breaker.
\u2022
Explain the principle of operation.
\u2022
Perform the safety precautions necessary when circuit breaker is removed.
\u2022
Demonstrate the ACB withdrawal procedure.
\u2022
Explain how over-current protection, under-voltage protection and reverse power
protection are incorporated in the ACB.
\u2022
Determine the setting for each of the above protection.
\u2022
Describe the principle of operation of preferential tripping in an a.c. system.
\u2022
Explain where in the range of generator load, preferential trips and alarms are
set to operate.
\u2022
Describe the testing procedures for the above protections.
Overview

This lesson provides students with an understanding of the working principle of the
Air Circuit Breaker and the protection incorporated in it for safe operation of
generators.

Air Circuit Breaker
___________________________________________________________________
PTM / Jul 2002
66
SP / SMA
Module : Electrical Engineering
MT 3011
Topic : Air Circuit Breaker and Generator Protection
_________________________________________________________________________________
Figure 1

Figure 1 shows an Air Circuit Breaker of the draw-out type found in main
switchboard of an a.c. system. It is used to connect the alternator safely onto the
bus bars as well as to disconnect it safely should a serious malfunction occur. It can
break a circuit in abnormal conditions - under-voltage, over-current, short-circuit,
reverse power- in an installation. It thus disconnect automatically a faulty circuit.

Principle of Operation

1. The main contacts are kept closed and latched against high spring force.
2. Quick acting tripping action is provided by release spring.
3. Cooling and splitting of arc is done by arc chutes. Arcing contacts close earlier

and open later than main contacts.
___________________________________________________________________
PTM / Jul 2002
67
SP / SMA
RP
151
X
Closing Push-
Button
Generato
r
Contact
sMai
n
Coil
Closing
Contacts
Auxiliar
y
Latch
Under-
voltage coil
Push-
Button
N.
O.
Trip
Contacts
440 / 110 V
440 / 110 V
Module : Electrical Engineering
MT 3011
Topic : Air Circuit Breaker and Generator Protection
_________________________________________________________________________________

4. Closing coil is provided to close the circuit breaker. This coil operates on d.c. power from rectifier and is energised by a closing relay operated by a push- button.

5. The no-volt coil trips the circuit breaker when severe voltage drop (setting could
be 50% - 70% of rated voltage) occurs. It also prevents circuit breaker from
being closed when generator voltage is very low or absent.

6. This coil operates on d.c. power. A push-button switch for opening the circuit breaker by de-energising the no-volt coil is used. Normally-open contacts are used for de-energising the coil and trip the circuit breaker by electronic over- current and reverse power relays.

A.C. Switchboard Protection
The following switchboard protections are incorporated in the Air Circuit Breaker
shown in Figure 1:
a. Over-current
b. Reverse-power
c. Under-voltage release

In the event of low voltage (50 % to 70% of rated voltage), ACB trips because the
no-volt coil is de-energised to release the mechanical latch. See simplified diagram
of ACB in Figure 2.

Figure 2

Closure by mistake of an alternator breaker when machine is dead is prevented by
an under-voltage trip. This protective measure is fitted when alternators are
arranged for parallel operation. Instantaneous operation of the trip is necessary to
prevent closure of the breaker.

___________________________________________________________________
PTM / Jul 2002
68
SP / SMA
Under-voltage
relay coil
Circuit
Breaker
Latch
Generator
Air Circuit
Breaker
3-phase 440 V Bus
Bars

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