A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges of all or any part of the finger. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the pal mar (palm and fingers) or plantar (sole and toes) skin, consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin. These ridges are sometimes known as \u201cdermal ridges \u201cor \u201cdermal papillae\u2019.
Fingerprint may be deposited in natural secretions from the eccrine glands present in friction ridge skin (secretions consisting primarily of water) or they may be made by ink or other contaminants transferred from the peaks of friction skin ridges to a relatively smooth surface such as a fingerprint card. The term fingerprint normally refers to impressions transferred from the pad on the last joint of fingers and thumbs, through fingerprint cards also typically record portions of lower joint areas of the fingers.
Today fingerprint devices are by far the most popular form of biometric security used, with a variety of systems on the market intended for general and mass-market usage.
Long gone are the huge bulky fingerprint scanners; now a fingerprint- scanning device can be small enough to be incorporated into a laptop for security.
An individual\u2019s fingerprint is scanned to identify 10 to 26 unique points of the finger, and a unique number is assigned to it. The original fingerprint image is not saved, but the fingerprint algorithm is stored. It cannot be used by law enforcement for future identification purposes.
Fingerprint search on database is made based on some measures; so polygons are determined connecting 3 minutiae. Thus, internal angles, sides and each minutia angle are computed. These measures are invariant to rotation and translation.
This method allows that a desired fingerprint can be localized on database even with position variation (displacement and rotation) in relation to the found fingerprint.
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