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Rate of Reaction 2

Rate of Reaction 2

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Published by MalaysiaBoleh

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Published by: MalaysiaBoleh on Mar 21, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/23/2013

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Rate of Reaction II
1
Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction
Mind Map
Total surfaceareaBig SmallRate of ReactionConcentration High LowRate of ReactionTemperature High LowRate of ReactionCatalyst With catalyst Without catalystRate of ReactionPressure High LowRate of ReactionFactors that influence a Rate of Reaction1.
 
Rate of reaction is influenced by the following factors:a)
 
Total surface area of the substance of reaction or the size of the solid substance of reaction.b)
 
Concentration of the substance of reactionc)
 
Temperature of the reactantd)
 
Catalyste)
 
Pressure
 
Rate of Reaction II
2
Important Tip
1. The definition of effective collision needs to have 3 main concepts:-
 
Total energy of the particles that collide must be the same or exceeding the activation energy.
 
The particles that collide must have the correct orientation of collision
 
The collision gets to produce a chemical reaction.2. The definition of activation energy must contain 2 main concepts:-
 
Minimum energy that must be possessed by particles of the reacting substance that collide.
 
Energy that must be overcome by the substances of the reaction that collide so that the reaction canoccur to give the products of the reaction.
A diagram of energy profile
1.
 
The meaning of energy activation can be pictured by a diagram of energy profile.2.
 
In the
diagram
of energy profile, the activation energy is shown by the difference in energy between the peak of the graph and the level of the energy of the reacting substance.
Collision Theory
1.
 
The particles of the reacting need to touch to enable formation or breaking of the bonds for a reaction tohappen.2.
 
Collisions of particles of a reacting substance need to achieve a certain minimum energy (ActivationEnergy) in order to produce a reaction.3.
 
Particles that collide also need to have the correct orientation of collision.
Activation Energy
1.
 
The
activation energy
is the minimum energy that the reactants particles must achieve at the time of collision in order for a chemical reaction to take place.2.
 
The value of the activation energy is different for different reactions.3.
 
A reaction with a high activation energy occurs slowly whereas a reaction with a low activation energyoccurs fast.
Effective Collision
Effective collision is the collision that produces a reaction
achieving
minimum energy that is sufficient and witha correct orientation of collision.
 
Rate of Reaction II
3
The orientation of collision
 1.
 
Consider a simple reaction involving a collisionbetween two molecules - ethene, CH
2
=CH
2
, andhydrogen chloride, HCl, for example. These react togive chloroethane.2.
 
As a result of the collision between the two molecules,the double bond between the two carbons is convertedinto a single bond. A hydrogen atom gets attached toone of the carbons and a chlorine atom to the other.3.
 
The reaction can only happen if the hydrogen end of the H-Cl bond approaches the carbon-carbon doublebond. Any other collision between the two moleculesdoesn't work. The two simply bounce off each other.4.
 
Of the collisions shown in the diagram, only collision 1 maypossibly lead on to a reaction.
Frequency of effective collision with rate of reaction and factors that affect the rate of reaction
1.
 
According to the collision theory, the frequency of effective collision influences the rate of reaction.2.
 
The frequency of effective collision is the number of effective collisions which occur in 1 second.3.
 
The rate of reaction depends on the frequency of effective collisions that occur.4.
 
If the frequency of an effective collision for a reaction is high, then the rate of reaction is also high. On theother hand, if the frequency of an effective collision is low, then the rate of reaction will become low
Wrong view
1. The rate of reaction increases when the total number of collisions between particles increases.2. When the number of effective collisions increases, then the rate of reaction also increases.
Actual
1.
 
The rate of reaction increases when the total number of collisions per unit of time between the particlesincreases.2.
 
When the number of effective collisions increases, the rate of reaction does not necessarily have to increase.The rate of reaction increases only if effective collisions that occur per second increase, that is when thefrequency of effective collisions increases. So, the correct statement is
"When the frequency of effective collisions increase, the rate of the reaction will also increase or when the number of effective collisions per second increases, the rate of reaction increases.
3.
 
The factors that influence the rate of reaction can be explained using the collision theory.

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