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dejsil

dejsil

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Published by api-19796662

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Published by: api-19796662 on Nov 29, 2009
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03/18/2014

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Michel Foucault
D\u00ccJINY
\u008a\u00cdLENSTV\u00cd
Hled\u00e1n\u00ed historick\u00fdch ko\u00f8en\u00f9
pojmu du\u009aevn\u00ed choroby
http://atheneum.zde.cz
Z francouzsk\u00e9ho origin\u00e1lu L\u0092histoire de la folie \u00e1 l\u0092\u00e2ge classique p\u00f8elo\u009eila
V\u00ecra Dvo\u00f8\u00e1kov\u00e1
\u00a9 Gallimard, 1993
Toto d\u00edlo, vydan\u00e9 v r\u00e1mci projektu F. X. \u008aalda, se t\u00ec\u009a\u00ed podpo\u00f8e Francouzsk\u00e9ho
ministerstva zahrani\u00e8\u00ed a Francouzsk\u00e9ho velvyslanectv\u00ed v \u00c8esk\u00e9 republice.
3
P\u00d8EDMLUVA

Pascal \u00f8ekl: \u0084Lid\u00e9 jsou tak nevyhnuteln\u00ec bl\u00e1zniv\u00ed, \u009ee neb\u00fdt bl\u00e1zen, by znamenalo bl\u00e1znit jin\u00fdm zp\u00f9sobem.\u0093 A Dostojevsk\u00fd v Den\u00edku spisovatele: \u0084T\u00edm, \u009ee druh\u00e9ho str\u00e8\u00ed\u009a do bl\u00e1zince, sv\u00f9j rozum nedok\u00e1\u009ee\u009a.\u0093 (\u00e8es. p\u00f8eklad Ladislava Zadra\u009eila - pozn. p\u00f8ekl.).

Pr\u00e1v\u00ec d\u00ecjiny tohoto jin\u00e9ho zp\u00f9sobu bl\u00e1znovstv\u00ed - kdy lid\u00e9 gestem svrchovan\u00e9ho rozumu strkaj\u00ed toho druh\u00e9ho do bl\u00e1zince a pozn\u00e1vaj\u00ed se a komunikuj\u00ed spolu v nemilosrdn\u00e9 \u00f8e\u00e8i ne-bl\u00e1znovstv\u00ed - je t\u00f8eba napsat; to jest nal\u00e9zt zp\u00ectn\u00ec moment, kdy toto sp\u00f8\u00edsah\u00e1n\u00ed nebylo je\u009at\u00ec definitivn\u00ec usazeno v kr\u00e1lovstv\u00ed pravdy, kdy je je\u009at\u00ec neo\u009eivoval lyrismus protestu. Neboli vr\u00e1tit se d\u00ecjinami \u009a\u00edlenstv\u00ed pokud mo\u009eno k nulov\u00e9mu bodu, kdy je \u009a\u00edlenstv\u00ed je\u009at\u00ec nediferencovanou zku\u009aenost\u00ed, je\u009at\u00ec nerozd\u00eclenou zku\u009aenost\u00ed rozd\u00eclen\u00ed. Popsat onen \u0084jin\u00fd zp\u00f9sob\u0093, k\u00f8ivku onoho gesta, kter\u00e9 odvrhuje na jednu stranu Rozum a na druhou \u008a\u00edlenstv\u00ed jako v\u00ecci nad\u00e1le vn\u00ecj\u009a\u00ed, hluch\u00e9 k jak\u00e9koli sm\u00ecn\u00ec a ja- koby mrtv\u00e9 jedna v\u00f9\u00e8i druh\u00e9, od sam\u00e9ho po\u00e8\u00e1tku.

Bude to nepochybn\u00ec oblast nesnadn\u00e1. M\u00e1me-li j\u00ed proj\u00edt, bude t\u00f8eba vzd\u00e1t se kone\u00e8n\u00fdch pravd a nikdy se nenechat v\u00e9st t\u00edm, co snad o \u009a\u00edlenstv\u00ed v\u00edme. Nebude tu sm\u00ect hr\u00e1t ur\u00e8uj\u00edc\u00ed roli - dokonce a hlavn\u00ec ani v implicitn\u00ed h\u00f8e retrospekce - \u009e\u00e1dn\u00fd z pojm\u00f9 psychopatologie. Konstitutivn\u00ed je gesto odd\u00eclen\u00ed \u009a\u00edlenstv\u00ed, a ne v\u00ecda, ustavuj\u00edc\u00ed se v op\u00ect nastolen\u00e9m klidu po odd\u00eclen\u00ed. Z\u00e1kladn\u00ed je c\u00e9zura, stanovuj\u00edc\u00ed odstup mezi rozumem a ne-rozumem; teprve a jedin\u00ec z n\u00ed se odv\u00edj\u00ed pohyb, j\u00edm\u009e se rozum ch\u00e1pe ne-rozumu, aby mu vyrval jeho pravdu, a\u009d u\u009e pravdu \u009a\u00edlenstv\u00ed, viny nebo nemoci. Mus\u00edme proto hovo\u00f8it o t\u00e9to prvotn\u00ed diskusi, a to bez p\u00f8edpokladu v\u00edt\u00eczstv\u00ed \u00e8i jak\u00e9hokoli pr\u00e1va na n\u00ec; hovo\u00f8it o t\u00ecchto gestech, je\u009e se v d\u00ecjin\u00e1ch st\u00e1le znovu vracej\u00ed, a ponech\u00e1vat s otazn\u00edkem v\u009aechno, co m\u00f9\u009ee vypadat jako kone\u00e8n\u00e9, jako spo\u00e8inut\u00ed v pravd\u00ec; hovo\u00f8it o onom aktu \u00f8ezu, o onom zaujet\u00ed odstupu, o onom pr\u00e1zdnu nastole- n\u00e9m mezi rozumem a t\u00edm, co j\u00edm nen\u00ed, a nikdy se p\u00f8itom pln\u00ec neop\u00edrat o to, za\u00e8 se rozum vyd\u00e1v\u00e1.

Tehdy, a pr\u00e1v\u00ec jen tehdy, m\u00f9\u009ee vyvstat oblast, v n\u00ed\u009e se \u00e8lov\u00eck \u009a\u00edlen\u00fd a \u00e8lov\u00eck rozumu, je\u009at\u00ec nerozd\u00eclen\u00ed, za\u00e8\u00ednaj\u00ed odd\u00eclovat, a jakousi velice prvotn\u00ed, velice neohrabanou \u00f8e\u00e8\u00ed, \u00f8e\u00e8\u00ed ran\u00ecj\u009a\u00ed ne\u009e \u00f8e\u00e8 v\u00ecdy, spolu zahajuj\u00ed dialog sv\u00e9 roztr\u009eky, prchav\u00ec dosv\u00ecd\u00e8uj\u00edc\u00ed, \u009ee spolu je\u009at\u00ec hovo\u00f8\u00ed. \u008a\u00edlenstv\u00ed a ne-\u009a\u00edlenstv\u00ed,

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