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Cengel_Cimbala_Solutions_Chap09

Cengel_Cimbala_Solutions_Chap09

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Chapter 9Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow
9-1
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. \u00a9 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to
teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Solutions Manual for
Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications
by \u00c7engel & Cimbala

CHAPTER 9
DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL

This Manual is the proprietary property of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (\u201cMcGraw-Hill\u201d) and protected by copyright and other state and federal laws. By opening and using this Manual the user agrees to the following restrictions, and if the recipient does not agree to these restrictions, the Manual should be promptly returned unopened to McGraw-Hill:This Manual is being provided only to authorized

professors and instructors for use in preparing for the classes using the affiliated textbook. No other use or distribution of this Manual is permitted. This Manual may not be sold and may not be distributed to or used by any student or other third party. No part of this Manual may be reproduced, displayed or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without the prior written permission of McGraw-Hill.

Chapter 9Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow
9-2
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. \u00a9 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to
teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
General and Mathematical Problems
9-1C
Solution
We are to explain the fundamental differences between a flow domain and a control volume.
Analysis
A control volume is used in an integral, control volume solution. It is a volume over which all mass flow

rates, forces, etc. are specified over the entire control surface of the control volume. In a control volume analysis we do not know or care about detailsin sid e the control volume. Rather, we solve for gross features of the flow such as net force acting on a body. A flow domain, on the other hand, is also a volume, but is used in a differential analysis. Differential equations of motion are solved everywhere inside the flow domain, and weare interested in all the details inside the flow domain.

Discussion
Note that we also need to specify what is happening at the boundaries of a flow domain \u2013 these are called
boundary conditions.
9-2C
Solution
We are to explain what we mean by coupled differential equations.
Analysis
A set of coupled differential equations simply means that the equations are dependent on each other and
must be solved together rather than separately. For example, the equations of motion for fluid flow involve velocity
variables in both the conservation of mass equation and the momentum equation. To solve for these variables, we must
solve the coupled set of differential equations together.
Discussion
In some very simple fluid flow problems, the equations become uncoupled, and are easier to solve.
9-3C
Solution
We are to discuss the number of unknowns and the equations needed to solve for those unknowns for a
three-dimensional, unsteady, incompressible flow field.
Analysis
There are four unknowns (velocity componentsu,v,w, and pressureP) and thus we need to solvef o ur
equations:
\u2212 one from conservation of mass which is a scalar equation
\u2212 three from Newton\u2019s second law which is a vector equation
Discussion
These equations are also coupled in general.
9-4C
Solution
We are to discuss the number of unknowns and the equations needed to solve for those unknowns for a
three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible flow field with significant variations in both temperature and density.
Analysis
There are six unknowns (velocity componentsu,v,w,\u03c1,T, andP) and thus we need to solvesix
equations:

\u2212 one from conservation of mass which is a scalar equation
\u2212 three from Newton\u2019s second law which is a vector equation
\u2212 one from the energy equation which is a scalar equation
\u2212 one from an equation of state (e.g. ideal gas law) which is a scalar equation

Discussion
These equations are also coupled in general.
Chapter 9Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow
9-3
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. \u00a9 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to
teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
9-5C
Solution
We are to express the divergence theorem in words.
Analysis
For vectorG\ue005
, the volume integral of the divergence ofG\ue005
over volumeV is equal to the surface
integral of the normal component ofG\ue005
taken over the surfaceA that encloses the volume.
Discussion
The divergence theorem is also called Gauss\u2019s theorem.
9-6
Solution
We are to transform a position from Cartesian to cylindrical coordinates.
Analysis
We use the coordinate transformations provided in this chapter,
( )( )
2
2
2
2
4 m
3m
5 m
r
x
y
=
+ =
+
=
(1)
and
1
1
o
3m
tan
tan
36.87
0.6435 radians
4 m
y
x
\u03b8
\u2212
\u2212\u239b
\u239e
=
=
=
=
\u239c
\u239f
\u239d
\u23a0
(2)
Coordinatez remains unchanged. Thus,
Position in cylindrical coordinates:
(
) (
)
, ,
x
r z
\u03b8
=
=5 m, 0.6435 radians, - 4 m
\ue005
(3)
Discussion
Notice that the units of\u03b8 are radians since angles are dimensionless.
9-7
Solution
We are to calculate a truncated Taylor series expansion for a given function and compare our result with the
exact value.
Analysis
The algebra here is simple sinced(ex)/dx =ex. The Taylor series expansion is
Taylor series expansion:
0
0
0
0
2
3
0
1
1
(
)
...
2
3 2
x
x
x
x
f x dx
e
e dx
e dx
e dx
+ =+
+
+
+
\u00d7
(1)
We plugx0 = 0 anddx = \u20130.1 into Eq. 1,
Truncated Taylor series expansion:
2
3
1
1
( 0.1) 1 1 ( 0.1)
1 ( 0.1)
1 ( 0.1)
0.9048333...
2
6
f\u2212 \u2248+\u00d7\u2212 + \u00d7\u00d7\u2212
+ \u00d7\u00d7\u2212
=
(2)
We compare Eq. 2 with the exact value,
Exact value:
0.1
( 0.1)
0.904837418...
f
e\u2212
\u2212 =
=
(3)
Comparing Eqs. 2 and 3 we see that our approximation is good to four or five significant digits.
Discussion
The smaller the value ofdx, the better the approximation. You can easily convince yourself of this by trying
dx = 0.01 instead.

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