There was a problem sending you an sms. Check your phone number or try again later.
We've sent a link to the Scribd app. If you didn't receive it, try again.
The separation of organic mixtures into groups of components of similar chemical type was one of the earliest applications of solvent extraction. In this chapter the termsolvent is used to de\ufb01ne the extractant phase that may contain either an extractant in a diluent or an organic compound that can itself act as an extractant. Using this technique, a solvent that preferentially dissolves aromatic compounds can be used to remove aromatics from ker- osene to produce a better quality fuel. In the same way, solvent extraction can be used to produce high-purity aromatic extracts from catalytic refor- mates, aromatics that are essentially raw materials in the production of products such as polystyrene, nylon, and Terylene. These features have made solvent extraction a standard technique in the oil-re\ufb01ning and pet- rochemical industries. The extraction of organic compounds, however, is not con\ufb01ned to these industries. Other examples in this chapter include the production of pharmaceuticals and environmental processes.
In these applications, solvent extraction constitutes an extraction stage during which an organic phase is in contact with an aqueous phase or another immiscible organic phase. The extract is then recovered by dis- tillation or washing with an aqueous or organic phase.
Using new solvents and having a better understanding of the chemistry involved in more speci\ufb01c interactions, solvent extraction has become a very interesting separation technique for high-value organic chemicals (e.g., amino acids). Furthermore, liquid extraction using two phases with very high water concentration has found applications for the separations of proteins.
The development of better thermodynamic models has made it pos- sible to simulate industrial processes from only a minimum of experimental data. This facilitates process integration and optimization, with a minimum of pilot plant tests.
Although the solvent extraction process might seem simple from an engi- neering point of view and has relatively low equipment costs, the design of an economically attractive process requires a complex strategy that takes account of many dependent variables. There are numerous instances in which an improper comparison between solvent extraction and other separation techniques has been made because of a quite unsystematic investigation of the solvent selection step. The substance to be extracted, the solute, and the extracting solvent, made up of extractant and a diluent, interact in such a complicated way that the extraction step cannot be isolated from the recovery steps in the selection of the solvent. There are at least three inte- grated stages to be considered:
3. Ra\ufb03nate cleanup
In the extraction of organic components, as will be shown, these three steps can all be equally important for costs of operating and capital costs. Design calculations cannot be made based on distribution coe\ufb03cients alone. Thus, several cases have shown that the optimum economic approach was neither obvious nor anticipated in preliminary studies.
The initial requirement in the development of a solvent extraction process for the recovery or separation of organic substances is knowledge of the feed composition and \ufb02ow rate and of the restrictions on the product quality and ra\ufb03nate composition. Starting with these conditions \ufb01xed, a preliminary solvent selection can be made from solvents representing di\ufb00erent process con\ufb01gurations such as low-boiling solvents, high-boiling solvents, or solvents from which the solute is stripped back into an aqueous phase.
There is no \u2018\u2018universal solvent,\u2019\u2019 and solvent selection must be made individually for each separation problem. The speci\ufb01c choice must be based on a general knowledge of the different interactions in both phases. Among the desirable features for the extracting solvent are the following:
Obviously, no solvent satis\ufb01es all these requirements, and the selection of a desirable solvent involves a compromise between these and other fac- tors. When a preliminary selection has been made, a secondary screening can be performed based on simpli\ufb01ed calculations of minimum energy requirement, since the capital costs for similar process con\ufb01gurations will not vary too much.
In the \ufb01nal selection, rigorous calculations must be carried out together with laboratory tests on phase separation properties, chemical stability, veri\ufb01cation of equilibrium data used in the calculations, and so on. At this stage, the data obtained have to be examined critically to ensure that there is su\ufb03cient potential for the project to be carried to the next phase. If su\ufb03cient information has been collected for a conceptual \ufb02ow sheet, a decision can then be made on whether or not to run a pilot plant. From pilot plant data, the process can be scaled up according to principles given in the literature. This outline of the principles of designing a solvent extraction process is general, but some of the individual steps require experience and e\ufb00ective aids, such as computer programs and experimental equipment. Some of the dif- \ufb01cult steps are discussed in greater detail in the following examples.
The industrial stream to be treated, the feed, will not be an analytical grade solute dissolved in water, but often contains several known and unknown substances, both organic and inorganic. To be able to make an initial selection of possible solvents, it is necessary to make a classi\ufb01cation of the individual substances present in the feed and of the groups of substances with chemical similarities, for instance, para\ufb03ns, aromatics, salts, or others.
Now bringing you back...
Does that email address look wrong? Try again with a different email.