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Gerard ’t Hooft - SPECIAL FUNCTIONS and POLYNOMIALS

Gerard ’t Hooft - SPECIAL FUNCTIONS and POLYNOMIALS

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SPECIAL FUNCTIONS and POLYNOMIALS
Gerard \u2019t Hooft
Stefan Nobbenhuis

Institute for Theoretical Physics
Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4
3584 CC Utrecht, the Netherlands

and
Spinoza Institute
Postbox 80.195
3508 TD Utrecht, the Netherlands
Many of the special functions and polynomials are constructed along standard
procedures In this short survey we list the most essential ones.
October 4, 2005
1
1 Legendre PolynomialsP\ue000(x) .
Di\ufb00erential Equation:
(1\u2212x2)P\ue000
\ue000\ue000(x)\u2212 2xP\ue000
\ue000(x) +\ue000(\ue000 + 1)P\ue000(x) = 0,
or
d
dx(1\u2212x2)d
dxP\ue000(x) + \ue000(\ue000+ 1) P\ue000(x) = 0 .
(1.1)
Generating function:
\u221e
\ue00b
\ue000=0
P\ue000(x)t\ue000= (1\u2212 2xt+ t2)\u22121
2
for|t|< 1,|x|\u2264 1.
(1.2)
Orthonormality:
\ue00c
1
-1
P\ue000(x)P\ue000\ue000(x)dx=
2
2\ue000 + 1\u03b4\ue000\ue000\ue000 ,
(1.3)
\u221e
\ue00b
\ue000=0
P\ue000(x)P\ue000(x\ue000)(2\ue000+1) = 2\u03b4(x\u2212 x\ue000) .
(1.4)
Expressions forP\ue000(x) :
P\ue000(x) =1
2\ue000
[\ue000/2]
\ue00b
\u03bd=0
(\u22121)\u03bd (2\ue000\u2212 2\u03bd)!
\u03bd!(\ue000\u2212 \u03bd)! (\ue000\u22122\u03bd)!x\ue000\u22122\u03bd
(1.5)
=
1
\ue000!2\ue000
\ue002
d
dx
\ue003
\ue000(x2\u2212 1)\ue000,
(1.6)
=1
\u03c0
\ue00c
\u03c0
0(x +\u221ax2\u2212 1 cos\u03d5)\ue000 d\u03d5.
(1.7)
Recurrence relations:
\ue000P\ue000\u22121\u2212(2\ue000+ 1) xP\ue000+ (\ue000+ 1) P\ue000+1= 0 ;
P\ue000= xP\ue000\u22121+x2\u22121
\ue000P\ue000\ue000\u22121;
xP\ue000\ue000\u2212 \ue000P\ue000= P\ue000\ue000\u22121;
xP\ue000\ue000+ (\ue000+ 1) P\ue000= P\ue000\ue000+1;
d
dx[P\ue000+1\u2212 P\ue000\u22121] = (2\ue000 + 1)P\ue000.
(1.8)
Examples:
P0= 1 ,
P1= x ,
P2=1
2(3x2\u2212 1),
P3=12 x(5x2\u22123) .
(1.9)
1
2 Associated Legendre FunctionsPm
\ue000(x).
Di\ufb00erential equation:
(1\u2212x2)Pm
\ue000(x)\ue000\ue000\u2212 2xPm
\ue000(x)\ue000 +
\ue002
\ue000(\ue000+ 1)\u2212m2
1\u2212x2
\ue003
Pm
\ue000(x ) = 0.
(2.1)
Generating function:
\u221e
\ue00b
\ue000=0
\ue000
\ue00b
m=0
Pm
\ue000(x)zm y\ue000
m!
=
\ue00d
1\u2212 2y
\ue002
x+ z\u221a1\u2212 x2
\ue003
+y2
\ue00e
\u221212.
(2.2)
Orthogonality:
\ue00c
1
-1
Pm
\ue000(x)Pm
\ue000\ue000(x) dx =2
2\ue000 + 1
(\ue000 +m)!
(\ue000\u2212 m)!\u03b4\ue000\ue000\ue000 ,
(\ue000, \ue000\ue000\u2265 m ).
(2.3)
\u221e
\ue00b
\ue000=m
(2\ue000 + 1)(\ue000\u2212 m)!
(\ue000 +m)!Pm
\ue000(x)Pm
\ue000(x\ue000) = 2\u03b4(x\u2212 x\ue000),
(|x|< 1 and|x\ue000|< 1 ). (2.4)
Expressions forPm
\ue000(x)1:
Pm
\ue000(x) = (1\u2212x2)
12m
\ue006
d
dx
\ue007
m
P\ue000(x) .
(2.5)
Pm
\ue000(x) =(\ue000 +m)!
\ue000! \u03c0(\u22121)m/2
\ue00c
\u03c0
0
\ue002
x+\u221ax2\u22121 cos \u03d5
\ue003
\ue000cosm\u03d5 d\u03d5 .
(2.6)
Recurrence relations:
Pm+1
\ue000
\u22122mx
\u221a1\u2212x2Pm
\ue000+{\ue000(\ue000 + 1)\u2212m(m\u2212 1)}Pm\u22121
\ue000
= 0
(2.7)
\u221a1\u2212x2 Pm+1
\ue000
(x) = (1\u2212x2)Pm
\ue000(x)\ue000 +mx Pm
\ue000(x),
(2\ue000 + 1)xPm
\ue000= (\ue000 +m)Pm
\ue000\u22121+ (\ue000 + 1\u2212m)Pm
\ue000+1,
(2.8)
xPm
\ue000
=Pm
\ue000\u22121\u2212(\ue000 + 1 \u2212m)\u221a1 \u2212x2 Pm\u22121
\ue000
,
Pm
\ue000+1\u2212Pm
\ue000\u22121= (2\ue000+1)Pm\u22121
\ue000
\u221a1\u2212x2 ,
(2.9)
and various others.
Examples:
P1
1=\u221a 1\u2212x2 ,
P2
2= 3(1\u2212x2),
P1
2= 3x\u221a1\u2212x2 ,
P2
3= 15x(1\u2212x2).
(2.10)
1Note that some authors de\ufb01nePm
\ue000(x) with a factor (\u22121)m, givingPm
\ue000(x) = (\u22121)m(1\u2212
x2)
1
2m
\ue000
d
dx
\ue001
mP\ue000(x). Obviously this minus sign propagates to the generating function, the recurrence
relations and the explicit examples, whenm is odd.
2

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