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Energy Conservation in Textile

Energy Conservation in Textile

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Published by: kaydeeyou on Nov 29, 2009
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03/16/2014

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ENERGY CONSERVATION IN TEXTILE INDUSTRYLEARNINGS FROM INDIAN EXPERIENCE-Satyadeo Purohit, Director, Forbes Marshall
The Textile Industry in India is one of the largest process industry (and one of the oldest) in terms of number ofplants.With an increase in competition and the removal of quota system, most of the Textile process houses wereforced to look at cost reduction to survive.The priorities for cost reduction were originally determined in the early/middle ‘90s based on the proportion ofcost attributed to different components like raw material, utilities, man power, financial costs etc. At that pointof time the priority was reduction in raw material costs as it contributed almost 50% in the total cost. Next inprioritywas the combined utilityi.e. electricity, fuel for steam / thermic fluid, water and compressed air.Within the utilities the focus was much more on electricity to begin with – as the cost of electricity wasincreasing and the availability was unreliable.This focus in late ‘90s yielded a very good result coupled with opportunity provided by opening of markets andavailability of raw materials (dyes, chemicals etc.) at very low rates (especially from China).Cost of fuel for generating Steam / Thermic fluid in the meantime continued to grow steeply, nearly offsettingthe benefits of reductions achieved in other areas. This brought focus to this utility and brought in the limelightthe limited knowledge and bench marks available for the industry to take concrete actions to curtail the growingcosts.Forbes Marshall, a pioneer in the field of Steam Energy Conservation, has worked with the textile industry overthe last 60 years especially in India, Srilanka and Bangladesh, apart from other countries. Along withConfederation of Indian Industry, Forbes Marshall initiated a bench marking exercise for specific fuelconsumption in Textile Industry.The findings are elaborated herewith, to have uniformity of data and draw representative conclusions. We arepresenting here case studies in India with similar plants, processes and end productsWe surveyed 49 industries in Tirupur region and 10 industries in Bhilwara region
Tirupur RegionUtilityFuel (Firewood) Kg/kg
Best1.57Average2.75
Bhilwara RegionUtilityFuel (Lignite) Kg/mtr
Best 0.29Average 0.36
Percentage Reduction in Fuel BillIndustrySteamGenerationDistribution& UtilizationCondensate &FlashRecoveryCapacityUtilizationTotal
Textile – Bhilwara7.0%3.0%5.0%N.A.15.0%Textile 12.0%7.0%7.0%N.A.26.0%
 
TirupurLooking at the data available above and the work we at Forbes Marshall, have done with Textile Industry in thelast 60 years, we are briefly putting down opportunities for energy savings – with influencing factors / causesand remedies in the design of utility or operation of the process.We are classifying the entire steam and condensate loop into 3 segments.
Steam Generation & Distribution
Steam Utilization – based on the type of process
Condensate and flash steam recovery.
I)Steam Generation & DistributionSr.No.Influencing FactorCauseAction
1.Poor boiler efficiency
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Fluctuating processloads – improper loadingon boiler
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Proper selection of boilers- capacity, burnerturndown etc.2.
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Absence of diagnosticsto take immediatecorrective action
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Capacity & type ofsteam generator
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Boiler sequencing & load management
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Diagnostics – steam & oil flow meters, stackloss monitoring with online efficiency display.3.Higher distributionlosses
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Improper line sizing
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Improper insulation
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Improper line routing &condensate removalfrom steam lines.
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Designing the distribution network optimally;proper line sizing & without extra provisionsfor expansions
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Proper condensate removal from steamlines; Diagnostics – Pressure & temperaturegauges, steam flow meters etc.
II)Steam Utilization :-
Process’s in Textile Industry can be segregated into following segments & opportunities identified separatelyfor each – 
Batch wet processing under pressure
Batch wet processing –Atmospheric
Continuous ProcessingMain opportunity for Energy Savings in Batch Wet processing under pressure – 
Sr.No.AreaActions
1.Reduction in liquor ratio
-
Based on process requirement
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Operating practices – how precisely are the ratioscontrolled practically; are proper measurements in place?2.Reduce & maintain processtime
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Properly sized & selected temperature controls3.Reduce batch / process time
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Proper condensate removal from HEX area
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proper pressure of steam
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instantaneous hot water availability4.Reduce reprocessing
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proper diagnostics & control on the process parameters5.Insulate
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hot areas
 
Main opportunity for Savings in Batch Wet Processing –Atmospheric: Jiggers, Winches, Washing etc.
Sr.No.AreaActions
1Avoid overheating
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Proper temperature control
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Proper selection of steam pressure
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Proper steam injection system (direct + indirect)
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Diagnostics2Effluent heat recovery
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Customized systems for heat recovery.For continuous processing,the areas are similar with further focus on flow characteristics, counter flowoperation, improved washing action, automation of process etc.Other process’s like drying cylinders etc. the issues related to energy conservation revolves around properconditioning of steam and condensate removal from heat exchange areas – a)Reduce steam pressureb)Removal of air for steam systemsc)Proper steam trappingd)Proper selection & maintenance of rotary joints & syphons.
III)Condensate & Flash Recovery
Condensate heat in most energy conscious plants is being recovered back to boiler feed tank or for use in theprocess.However, a major opportunity exists in recovering the flash steam heat which is universally wasted. Systemsdesigned to recompress the atmospheric or low pressure flash steam to a reusable pressure can be designedspecifically for this purpose.Overall the opportunity to conserve energy in steam systems in Textile Industry is tremendous, however toavail of the benefits we need to be specific with data such as operating hours, parameters, benchmarks etc.For all of above to happen, the starting point is to have a diagnostics and monitoring mechanism in place for allkey parameters.Also simultaneously a well designed and installed steam system may not yield adequate results unless properoperating practices including enhancing the Energy Awareness at all levels in the organization is systematicallyimplemented.6. Recover heat from Dye liquor &Cooling water
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Customized systems
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Diagnostics

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