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Published by: api-19799369 on Nov 30, 2009
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CRYPTOGRAPHY (One of its possible solution)
Submitted to GMR Institute Of Technology.
Presentation done by:
Maneesh Kumar Sethia
Suman Arya
Ht no. 03981A0525
Ht no. 03981A0545
Raghu Engineering College
Raghu Engineering College
Of Raghu Engineering College.

Networking and internet are rapidly expanding sector of computer market .The simple fact is that the internet and fax computers are just like any other large community with both good and bad elements.

Many companies, organizations and indeed individual have installed such systems without
realizing the risk they are running. This paper examines the risk such as hacking and provides
their solutions.
This paper address the security issue framed in the context of needs small and medium enterprise
(SME\u2019s), ranch officers of large organization and educational institutions.

The requirements of Information security within an organization have undergone two major changes in the last several decades. Before the widespread use of data processing equipment, the security of information felt to be valuable to an organization was provided primarily by physical and Administrative means. The generic name for collection of tools designed to protect data and thwart hackers isComputer Security. Second major change that affected security is the introduction of distributed systems and the use of networks and communications facilities for carrying data between terminals user and computer and between computer and computer.Network Security measures are needed to protect data during their transmission.Network security is a complicated subject, historically only tackled by well-trained and experienced experts. However, as more and more people become ``wired'', an increasing number of people need to understand the basics of security in a networked world.

In the following sections, we will look on network security from several angles, point out numerous pitfalls, and

discuss many algorithms and protocols for making networks more secure. Network Security problems can be divided roughly into 4 four interwined Areas;

Non-repudiation ,and
Secrecy has to do with keeping information out of the hands of unauthorized users. This is what
usually comes to mind when people think about network security.
Authentication deals with determining whom you are talking to before revealing sensitive information or entering
into a business deal .Authentication mechanisms help establish proof of identities.
Non-repudiation deals with signature i.e. how do you prove that your customer
really placed an electric order ?Finally, how can you be sure that a message you received was really the one sent
and not something that mallicious adversory modified in transit or concocted?

Integrity control deals with securing the message from any modifications by intruders. When the contents of a message are changed after the sender sends it, but before it reaches the intended recipient, we say that the integrity of the message is lost.

All these issues (secrecy,authentication, non-repudiation, and integrity control ) occur in traditional systems too, but with some significant differences.secrecy and integrity are achieved by signing registered mail and locking documents up.

People authenticate other people by recognizing their faces, voices, and handwriting. Signatures on letterhead paper, raised seals, and so on handle proof of signing. Handwriting, paper and ink experts can usually detect tampering. None of these options are available electronically. Clearly, other solutions are needed.


Cryptography is the art of achieving security by encoding messages to make them non-readable. In the early days, cryptography used to be performed by using manual techniques. The basic framework of performing cryptography has remained more or less the same, of course, with a lot of improvements in the actual

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