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Digital Signal Processing

Digital Signal Processing

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Published by: api-19799369 on Nov 30, 2009
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03/18/2014

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Digital Signal Processing
\u201cThe one and only solution for Telephony\u201d
Authors :
Ramesh.G
Pavan kumar.S
ramesh.g2005@gmail.com
friendlystar_pa1@yahoo.com
hsemar_g2005@yahoo.co.in
friendlystar.pa1@gmail.com
Cell: 9985838281
(II/IV) B-Tech

Electronics And Communication Engineering
QIS College of Engineering And Technology
Ongole.

TELEPHONY
ABSTRACT

This application report describes DSP algorithms used in telephony applications. These algorithms include tone detection /generation, dual tone multi-frequency generation/detection, voice compression/decompression (ADPCM), acoustic echo cancelation, line echo cancelation, and caller ID. Speaker phones, modems, voice mail systems, and caller ID units use these algorithms. The TI DSP solutions for telephony applications enhance the functionality of older technologies, such as the plain old telephone service (POTS) lines. Telephones, speaker phones, modems, answering machines, and caller identification units are also some telephony devices that use DSPs.

Contents:
Introduction for Telephony
POTS Line
Two-Wire to Four-Wire Converter
Voice Type Applications

Voice Mail Systems
Tone Detection and Generation
DTMF Generation
Voice Compression and Expansion .

ADPCM
Echo Cancelers in Full Duplex Speakerphones and Modems .
DSP Requirements for Caller Identification .
Introduction

The TI DSP solutions for telephony applications enhance the functionality of older technologies, such as the plain old telephone service (POTS) lines. Telephones, speaker phones, modems, answering machines, and caller identification units are some telephony devices that use DSPs. Figure 1., illustrates some DSP solutions that are available for

telephony equipment.
\u2666POTS Line

The plain old telephone service (POTS) lines are a major part of analog telephone networks. The POTS lines connect local telephone facilities, called central offices (CO), to most household telephones (see Figure 1). The connection between the CO and the telephone is called the local loop. The POTS line was designed to carry voice signals cost effectively. When the POTS signal reaches the CO, it is filtered to pass 200 to 3600Hz and converted to a digital signal. As with any transmission line the POTS line impedance varies with frequency.

\u2666Two-Wire to Four-Wire Converter

The early telephone circuit designers developed the two-wire to four-wire converter circuit to reduce the number of conductors required to operate the analog telephone system. The telephone\u2019s speaker and microphone circuits require four wires: two for the speaker and two for the microphone. The converter circuit (see Figure 2) reduces the number of system conductors from four to two, but introduces an undesirable signal component. This component is produced by the transmitter and is called echo. Echo if too loud, is undesirable in voice and data communications. For improved voice and data communications, DSPs provide an improved echo canceler function. The typical two-wire to four-wire converter circuit functions as an analog echo canceler. The discrete analog components model the POTS line impedance. The circuit components must approximate an average impedance between the many possible POTS line connections.

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