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notes-complex analysis

notes-complex analysis

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Lecture Notes for Complex Analysis
Frank Neubrander
Fall 2003

Analysis does not owe its really signi\ufb01cant successes of the last century to any mysterious use of\u221a\u22121, but to the quite natural circumstance that one has in\ufb01nitely more freedom of mathematical movement if he lets quantities vary in a plane instead of only on a line.

Leopold Kronecker
Recommended Readings:

1.Walter Rudin,Real and Complex Analysis (paperback), McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 1987
2.John B. Conway,Functions of One Complex Variable, Springer Verlag, 1986
3.Jerold E. Marsden, Michael J. Ho\ufb00man,Basic Complex Analysis, Freeman, 1987
4.Reinhold Remmert,Theory of Complex Functions, Springer Verlag, 1991
5.E.C. Titchmarsh,The Theory of Functions, Oxford University Press, 1975
6.Joseph Bak, Donald J. Newman,Complex Analysis, Second Edition, Springer-Verlag New York, 1996

2Tentative Table of Contents

1.1The Field of Complex Numbers
1.2Analytic Functions
1.3The Complex Exponential
1.4The Cauchy-Riemann Theorem
1.5Contour Integrals


2.2Cauchy\u2019s Theorem
2.3Cauchy\u2019s Integral Formula
2.4Cauchy\u2019s Theorem for Chains
2.5Principles of Linear Analysis
2.6Cauchy\u2019s Theorem for Vector-Valued Analytic Functions
2.7Power Series
2.8Resolvents and the Dunford Functional Calculus
2.9The Maximum Principle
2.10Laurent\u2019s Series and Isolated Singularities
2.11Residue Calculus


3.1Norm-Continuous Semigroups
3.2Laplace Transforms
3.3Strongly Continuous Semigroups
3.4Tauberian Theorems
3.5The Prime Number Theorem
3.6Asymptotic Analysis and Formal Power Series
3.7Asymptotic Laplace Transforms
3.8Convolution, Operational Calculus and Generalized Functions

3.9 - 3.18Selected Topics
Chapter 1
The Basics
1.1 The Field of Complex Numbers
The two dimensionalR-vector spaceR2 of ordered pairsz = (x, y) of real numbers with multiplication
(x1 ,y1)(x2 ,y2) := (x1 x2\u2212y1 y2 ,x1 y2+x2y1) is a commutative \ufb01eld denoted byC. We identify a real number
xwith the complex number (x,0). Via this identi\ufb01cationC becomes a \ufb01eld extension ofR with the unit

element 1 := (1, 0)\u2208C. We further de\ufb01nei := (0, 1)\u2208C. Evidently, we have thati2 = (\u22121, 0) =\u22121. The numberi is often called theimaginary unit ofC although nowadays it is hard to see anything imaginary in the plane point (0, 1).1 Everyz\u2208C admits a unique representation

z= (x, y) = x(1,0) + (0,1)y= x+ iy,
wherex is called the real part ofz,x =Re(z), andy the imaginary part ofz,y =Im(z). The number
z= x\u2212 iyis the conjugate of zand
\ue016x2+ y2=\u221azz
is called the absolute value or norm. The multiplicative inverse of 0\ue001=z\u2208C is given by
z\u22121=1z =z
1The situation was di\ufb00erent in 1545 when Girolamo Cardano introduced complex numbers in hisArs Magna only to
dismiss them immediately assubtle as they are useless. In 1702 Leibnitz described the square root of\u22121 asthat amphibian
between existence and nonexistenceand in 1770 Euler was still su\ufb03ciently confused to make mistakes like\u221a\u22122\u221a\u22123 =\u221a6.

The \ufb01rst answer to the question\u201dWhat is a complex number\u201d that satis\ufb01ed human senses was given in the late eighteenth century by Gauss. Since then we have the rock-solid geometric interpretation of a complex number as a point in the plane. With Gauss, the algebraically mysterious imaginary uniti =\u221a\u22121 became the geometrically obvious, boring point (0, 1). Many teachers introduce complex numbers with the convenient half-truth that they are useful since they allow to solve all quadratic equations. If this were their main purpose of existence, they would truly be subtle as they were useless. The \ufb01rst one to see the true usefullness of the complex numbers was Rafael Bombelli in hisL\u2019Algebra from 1572. Investigating

Cardano\u2019s formula, which gives a solution of the cubic equationx3\u22123px\u22122q = 0 byx0 =3
q2\u2212 p3+3
q2\u2212 p3,
he noticed that the solution ofx3\u2212 15x\u2212 4 = 0 is given byx0 =3
2 + 11\u221a\u22121 +3
2\u2212 11\u221a\u22121. It was Bombelli\u2019s famous
wild thoughtthat led him to recognize thatx0 = 4. This was the \ufb01rst manifestation of one of the truly powerful properties
of complex numbers: real solutions of real problems can be determined by computations in the complex domain. See also:
T. Needham,Visual Complex Analysis [1997] and J. Stillwell,Mathematics and Its History [1989].

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