This Special Report assesses post-disaster reconstruction efforts in Indonesia—and Indonesian views of them—one year after the great Asian tsunami.
provides an overview of Indonesia’s post-tsunami environment—one of highexpectations and growing optimism about the rebuilding process, yet one also markedby Aceh’s fragile politics and Indonesia’s legacy of corruption.
sur-veys Indonesian media and public opinion in his study of how U.S. post-tsunami aid hasboosted the American image in Indonesia.
examines treatment of thetsunami’s displaced, employing as a normative tool the Guiding Principles on InternallyDisplaced Persons (IDPs). Finally,
analyzes the steps taken to facil-itate IDPs’ permanent return, as well as the many remaining challenges.
One Year After the Tsunami: Policy and Public Perceptions
BAMBANG HARYMURTIThe High Stakes of Aceh’s Post-Tsunami Reconstruction
MUHAMMAD QODARIThe Tsunami,Humanitarian Aid,and the Image of the UnitedStates in the Muslim World
ROBERTA COHENMeasuring Indonesia’s Response to the Tsunami
COURTLAND ROBINSON Tsunami Displacement andReturn in Aceh Province
ore than a year after the great Asiantsunami of December 26,2004,thenumbers still astonish:approximately200,000 dead;hundreds of thousands of guttedhomes;and more than one million people dis-placed.What befell the Indian Ocean region onthat fateful day was truly a natural disaster of extraordinary magnitude.The tsunami affected 12 different nations,fromTanzania to Malaysia.Yet no nation was ravagedmore than Indonesia.According to Indonesian gov-ernment figures,the disaster’s toll in Aceh Provinceand Nias (an island comprising part of NorthSumatra Province) included 167,000 human deaths;500,000 people displaced;3,000 kilometers of use-less roads;and more than 2,000 damaged schoolbuildings.
Other sources’figures are more conser-vative,with estimates of around 130,000 deaths inIndonesia.
Regardless of the exact numbers of casualties,the tsunami’s destructive force was cata-strophic.One post-tsunami report estimated AcehProvince’s total damage and losses at $4.5 billion,“almost equal to its entire GDP.”
The dramatic international response,whichbegan with unprecedented levels of relief aid anddonations during the rescue phase,has remainedintense as post-disaster efforts have shifted to recon-struction.Ninety-two countries have contributedover the last year,and more than $13 billion has beenraised altogether.Seven nations,as well as the AsianDevelopment Bank,European Commission,andWorld Bank,have pledged at least $300 million.Andin an indication of the world’s continued generosityin the year after the tsunami,84 percent of the finan-cial needs for the United Nations tsunami appeal hadbeen fulfilled as of early December 2005 (converse-ly,all other UN appeals for humanitarian aid in 2005had received an average of 52 percent of neededfunds by that date).
EDITED BY MICHAEL KUGELMAN
This Special Report was made possible through a grant from the GE Foundation.
isprogram assistantwith the Woodrow Wilson Center’sAsia Program.