Discuss the difficulties of defining the terms 'health' and 'disease'.
-Physical, mental and social wellbeing
-Disease prevents proper physical functioning by interfering with the structure of organs, tissues or cells or by altering normal metabolism
the diverse opinionated responses amongst individuals; hence leading to controversy surrounding the true definitions of both health and disease
Different people have different levels of 'wellbeing'.
Disabilities can often get confused with disease i.e. arthritis labelled as a disabling condition rather than a disease.
There can be problems defining 'health' and 'disease' due to:
Outline how the function of genes, mitosis, cell differentiation and specialisation assist in the maintenance of health.
Genes and Mitosis:
Damaged cells are replaced by the division of healthy cells close to the injury or disease site. This is under genetic control. E.g. If epithelial cells are damaged, then other epithelial cells will divide to replace them. Once the genes that control mitosis go out of control, cell division continues to occur, forming tumours, resulting in the disease cancer.
Cell Differentiation and Specialisation:
different genes are activated in different cells, creating the
specific proteins that give a particular cell type its character. Each different type of cell is specialised for a specific function in the body, thus playing an important role in the maintenance of health and proper functioning of the body.
Use available evidence to analyse links between gene expression and maintenance and repair of body tissues.
the use of information in a gene to produce a observable characteristics in an organism. (Note: it's different from phenotype as it's not only the physical appearance, but
also accounts for hormones etc.) A gene is expressed when it is ‘switched on’ and the DNA
encoded within this gene is converted into polypeptides.
Through mitosis, gene expression can lead to the replacement of damaged cells. E.g. If a cell is
exposed to very high temperatures it can switch on a gene to make ‘heat shock proteins’. These heat
shock proteins can be produced very rapidly and can stabilise the other proteins in the cell. This helps protect the cell allowing it to function for longer.
Tuesday, 27 May 20149:33 PM
The Search for a Better Health Page 1