Immunity constitutes all the physiological mechanism which allow the
body to recognized materials as foreign to itself and to neutralize or
and multicellular organism.
2. Elimination of worn out or damage body cells.
3. Immune surveillance (cancer)
4. Seems to be involved in the process of aging.
5. Major obstacle to successful transplantation of organs.
3. basic polypeptides
B. Specific immune mechanism
1) Humoral immunity (antibodies)
2) Cell-mediated immunity (sensitized lymphocytes)
Non specific defense mechanism do not depend upon previous exposure to
the particular foreign substance without having to recognize their specific
identities. They are particularly important during the initial exposure to a
foreign organism before the specific immune responses have been activated.
Specific immune responses \u2013 Depend upon prior exposure to the specific
foreign substances recognition of it upon subsequent exposure and reaction
1.Ant igen - any substance capable of provoking an immune response of
any type in an immunologically \u2013 component vertebrate.
Antigens occurring in nature are substances of high molecular
weight and usually are proteins or CHO.
of provoking an immune response but able to serve as a partial
antigen when bound to another substance. Haptens are usually
of low molecular weight and may be of relatively simple
4. Cellular Specificity \u2013 immune cells like antibodies, have a maximal
reactivity with the specific antigen and lessening reactivity with
decreasingly related compound.
5. The immune system \u2013 This term is used synonymously with term
lymphoid system. Encompasses the system of the body which is
responsible for all types of immune responses.
6. The \u201cT-cell\u201d division \u2013 defined functionally as the system
responsible for the expression of cellular immunity. This division
requires the presence of a thymus gland during embryogenesis for
its development and maturation.
7.The \u201cB cell\u201d division define functionally as the division responsible for
the expression of humoral immunity. In birds, the system depends
on a hindgut lymphoid organ termed the Bursa of Fabricus for its
development and maturation. In mammals, a tissue system of gut
associated lymphoid tissue and /or bone marrow cells appear to
serve as a Bursa \u2013 equivalent.
- Major carriers of specific immunity against fungi, viruses, parasites
and few bacteria which to survive must live inside cells.
- Destruction of cancer cells.
- Rejection of solid-tissue transplant.
1. Neutralization of antigens
2. Antigen \u2013 antibody precipitation
3. Agglutination of bacteria
4. Lysis of cellular structure
Antibodies are all composed of polypeptide chains and are identical
except for a relatively small number of amino acids occupying the
first positions in the chains. These differences constitute the
antibody\u2019s specificity. Antibodies all belong to a family of proteins
known as gamma globulins and are also known as immunoglobulins.
Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains \u2013
two heavy chains and two light chains. Each polypeptide chain is
intricately folded to form globular regions that are joined together in
such a way that the immunoglobulin molecule as a whole is Y-shaped.
Each light chain consists of 214 amino acids. Heavy chains consist of
446 amino acids, so are about twice as long and weight about twice as
much as light chains.
Immunoglobulins are subdivided into five classes according to
difference in chemical structure and biological function. These are
designated by the letters G,A,M,D,E after the symbolic Ig (for
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