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PID Controller Algorithm

# PID Controller Algorithm

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03/18/2014

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ExperTune Analysis and Tuning software includes a database of over 500 industrial PI D controllers. I f you have a controller that is not in our list we would like to add it for you. With detailed information about the controller, we can accurately tune and simulate its response with your process. To add a new controller, we need documentation describing it.

There simply is no w ay to analytically tune a controller if you do not know the type of algorithm and
the units.
The Difference Equation is t he best

I deally the most complete information on the controller is the difference equations. These equations describe the digital operation of the controller as implemented in software. For example, here are the difference equations for a simple PI D controller:

et = PVt - SPt
xt = xt-1 + et-1 T/ I
yt = Gain[et+ xt + (et- et-1) D / T]
Where:
PV = process variable
SP = set point
yt = controller output
xt = temporary variable
T = controller sample interval
(NOTE: This simple example has no reset windup, no derivative gain limit and has
derivative action on error.)
With this information we can very accurately simulate and tune your controller.
Laplace Domain Equation
I f you can't get the difference equation then we need a Laplace domain equation that describes the
controller. Something like this, for example:
X = Gain[E s + E/(I s) + D s]
(NOTE: Again this a simplified example.)
Other information we need
Does the controller use: Proportional band or Gain?

What are the units on the controller integral action: min/ rep, rep/ min, sec/ rep or rep/ sec?
What are the units on the controller derivative action: min, sec?
Does the controller use multipliers on the gain, integral and derivative? For example on some
controllers, when you dial in 2000 for the gain, the actual gain is 2. This example has an implied

decimal point.
What other controller options are there for this algorithm. Does it have a gain on PV or gain on
error option? Does it have a D on PV or D on error option?
I f you do not have the difference equation w e also need
Laplace domain equation (s domain) above.
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PID Controller Algorithm
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