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The Upanishads
Translated and Commentated
Swami Paramananda
From the Original Sanskrit Text
A Penn State Electronic Classics Series Publication
The Upanishads trans. with commentary by Swami Paramananda is a publication of the Pennsyl-

vania State University. This Portable Document file is furnished free and without any charge of any kind. Any person using this document file, for any purpose, and in any way does so at his or her own risk. Neither the Pennsylvania State University nor Jim Manis, Faculty Editor, nor anyone associated with the Pennsylvania State University assumes any responsibility for the material contained within the document or for the file as an electronic transmission, in any way.

The Upanishads trans. with commentary by Swami Paramananda, the Pennsylvania State Univer-

sity, Electronic Classics Series, Jim Manis, Faculty Editor, Hazleton, PA 18202-1291 is a Portable
Document File produced as part of an ongoing student publication project to bring classical
works of literature, in English, to free and easy access of those wishing to make use of them.

Cover Design: Jim Manis
Copyright \u00a9 2001 The Pennsylvania State University
The Pennsylvania State University is an equal opportunity university.
The Upanishads
The Upanishads
Translated and Commentated
Swami Paramananda
From the Original Sanskrit Text
This volume is reverently dedicated to all seekers of truth
and lovers of wisdom.

The translator\u2019s idea of rendering the Upanishads into clear simple English, accessible to Occidental readers, had its origin in a visit paid to a Boston friend in 1909. The gentleman, then battling with a fatal malady, took from his library shelf a translation of the Upanishads and, open-

ing it, expressed deep regret that the obscure and unfa- miliar form shut from him what he felt to be profound and vital teaching.

The desire to unlock the closed doors of this ancient treasure house, awakened at that time, led to a series of classes on the Upanishads at The Vedanta Centre of Bos- ton during its early days in St. Botolph Street. The trans- lation and commentary then given were transcribed and, after studious revision, were published in the Centre\u2019s monthly magazine, \u201cThe Message of the East,\u201d in 1913 and 1914\u2026. Still further revision has brought it to its present form.

So far as was consistent with a faithful rendering of the Sanskrit text, the Swami throughout his translation has sought to eliminate all that might seem obscure and con- fusing to the modern mind. While retaining in remark- able measure the rhythm and archaic force of the lines, he has tried not to sacrifice directness and simplicity of style. Where he has been obliged to use the Sanskrit term for lack of an exact English equivalent, he has invariably interpreted it by a familiar English word in brackets; and

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