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Published by vladimir.mijatovic

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Published by: vladimir.mijatovic on Jul 13, 2014
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ACADEMIC TEXTS
BASIC FEATURES:
-impersonal style (e.g. Passive forms)-clear, concise language-rational, critical attitude-no colloquialisms
FUNCTIONS:
-describing processes and procedures-giving descriptions and definitions-classifying, generalising-comparing and contrasting-interpreting data-speculating, predicting-discussing, drawing conclusions
TYPES:
-reports-dissertations-articles-project proposals-conference reports-manuals, etc.
 
TITLE
STRUCTURE OF
 
Authors!nstitution
THE ARTICLE
 ABSTRACT
".basic information#.main goals of study$.main results%.conclusionssuggestions
INTRODUCTION
".definition of the problem#.references (other studies)&-"' $.search techniques
 METHODOLOGY/MATERIALS
".description of materials#.method$.statistical data%'-' 
RESULTS
*entral part of the article".refering to results (tables, graphs)#.findings$.comments
DISCUSSION
".confrontation of research hypothesiswith obtained results (i.e. presentation of principles and relationships)$' #.how your study agreesdisagrees with the research so far $.theoretical and pratical implications of your results
 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
than+ing for help, ideas,suggestions, interpretations,equipment, materials
REFERENCES
 
BASIC EXAM SKILLS: CLUE WORDS
In essay exams, every qes!"#n $#n!a"ns a C%e W#r&' C%e W#r&s are !(e )#r&s !(a! !(e %e$!rer ses !# "n&"$a!e )(a! an*%e (e #r s(e )an! y# !# !a+e )(en ans)er"n* !(e qes!"#n' C%e W#r&s !e%% y# exa$!%y )(a! !# &# "n y#r essay, s# !(ey are ex!reme%y "m#r!an! "n essay exams'
 An essay eam is li+e a mental game in which the lecturers tell you what you want. o play the game successfully you need to be aware of the precise meanings of the clue words in the questions. nce you have found the clue words and wor+ed out eactly what they mean, you can answer the question as clearly as possible./or eample01*ompare the goals of liberal and socialist feminism.2he clue word in this question is
$#mare
.!f the question as+ed you to 1
Eva%a!e
 the goals of...2, it would require a completely different answer.he following is a list of the most common clue words and their meanings in eam questions to helpyou prepare for essay eams. 3ecause the list is long, it is a good idea to read through past eam  papers to familiarise yourself with the most commonly used clue words in your discipline. 4any schools have past eam papers in the library.
C%e W#r&Mean"n*
 Analyse
o find the main ideas, how they are related and why they are important
 Comment on
o discuss, criticise, or eplain its meaning as completely as possible
 Compare
o show both the differences and the similarities.
 Contrast
o compare by showing the differences.
 Criticise
o give your judgement or reasoned opinion on something, showing its good and bad points. 5owever, it is not necessary to attac+.
 Defne
o give the formal meaning by distinguishing it from related terms. his is often a matter of giving a memorised definition.
 Describe
o write a detailed account or verbal picture in a logical sequence or story form.
 Diagram
o ma+e a graph, chart or drawing. 3e sure to label it and add a brief eplanation if necessary.
 Discuss
o describe, giving the details and eplaining the positives and negatives of something.

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