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The Chronicle of Prosper of Aquitaine, The Gallic Chronicle of 452, The Chronicle of Marius of Avenches

The Chronicle of Prosper of Aquitaine, The Gallic Chronicle of 452, The Chronicle of Marius of Avenches

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The Chronicle of Prosper of Aquitaine, The Gallic Chronicle of 452, The Chronicle of Marius of Avenches.

From Roman to Merovingian Gaul: A Reader (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures:V) by Alexander Callander Murray
The Chronicle of Prosper of Aquitaine, The Gallic Chronicle of 452, The Chronicle of Marius of Avenches.

From Roman to Merovingian Gaul: A Reader (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures:V) by Alexander Callander Murray

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Published by: coalhell on Jul 13, 2014
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Such
wns
the
life
I
led
from
about
the
time
I
unr
iâ,EntEEn
Ëntil
I
wartwenüy.
Finally my
parrnts'
senre
of
responsibility eompclled mc,
âgainrt my
will,
I
confess,
to
give
up the
allurements
of
the soft
ltib rnd
forced
me
totake
a
wife.
The
ancient
name
of
her
house
rves
rnore
impresrive
than
itsestate,
which at the
tirre
was burdened
with
problems
becausc
of
lack
of
attention
from
its
aged owner.
A
young
grandchild
who
had survived herfather
succeeded
to
it,
and
later yielded
to my
nuptial
torches.
Once
I
had
decided
to
bear
the burden laid upon
me,
in
only
a
few
days
I
\Mas
content, aided
by
the ardor
of
youth
and a
zealous
spirit,
to
enjoy
the
establishment
I
had
acquired.
Quickly
I
forced myself and
my
people
to
exchange seductive idleness
for
unaccustomed
activity.
Some
of
them
I
chal-lenged
with
the
example
of my
own
labor,
but
others
I
compelled
against
their
will with
the
severity
of
a master.
And
so,
actively
pursuing the
duties
of
my new
situation,
I
immediately
took
action
to
bring
the
fallow
lands
undercultivation
and
to
renew the
exhausted vineyards
with
prompt
attention,
once
I
had
learned
how.
And
I
was
first to
pây
my
tax obligations ât the
appointed
time,
willingly
and
of
my
orü/n
accord
-
something
that
seems
to
many
â
particulaù
bitter
pill to
swallow;
but
thereby
I
quickly
assured
myself
of
leisure
to
expend
later upon private
relaxation.
Paulinus
describes
the
luxury
of
his
household.
As
much
as
I
enjoyed pleasing
and welcome
amenities,
the
great
devotion
I
had
for
my
parents was dearer
still
and outweighed
them
all.
It
bound
me
with
a
tie of
overwhelming
love,
so
thât
for
the
greâter part
of
a
year
we keptthem
company, ân ârrangement
we
all wanted
and
found
rewarding.
Would
that this way
of
life
granted
to
us
might
have lasted
longer
by
the
bountiful
gift
of
Christ
and
that
also
the
earlier
period
of
peace
might
have
continued.
In
so many
rrr/ays
my youth
could
have
done
with
the
constant
attention
of
my
father's experience,
and
my
education
could
have
been
fur-
thered
by
good
models.
But
the
completion
of
the third
decade
of
life
[a.
4o6]
was
marked
by the
unhappy onset
of
wvo
afflictions.
In
a
public
câtâstro-
phe mourned
by
everyone, enemies
were poured
into
the
guts
of
the Roman
realm.
This
coincided
with
a
private misfortune,
the
death
and
funeral
of my
father.
For the
last days
of
the end
of
his
life
accorded almost exacdy
with
the
time when the
peace was
broken.
But
for
me the.destruction
caused
to
myhome
by the
ravages
of
the
enemy,
though
in
itself
considerable, was
lighter
by
far
than
the
immeasurable
grief
caused
by
the
death
of
my
father. He
made
both
homeland and home itself
dear
to
me.
For we
had
such genuine
mutual
respect
for
each
other that we lived
as
if
there were
no
age
difference
between
us
and
our
friendship
surpassed
that
of
friends
of
the
same
age.
TER
FOUR
TF{
E
ANTIOUE
CHRON
TCLE
TR.ADNTXONI
I
N
TI..NE
FIFTH
AND
SNXTI_N
CENTUR.NES
'llwr
,rrc
uo
extensiue
nanatiue
histories
Jor
the
fifth
century.
Coitemporary
historians
ild
tlul
tuith
euents
under the
western emperors
during
this
period,
but
their
works,
,0r,,rli,?,(§
o.f
eastern provefiance,
suruiue
as
fragments
embedded
in
later
sources
(see
ilt
27,
Jt).
For
complete
examples
oJ
western
historical
writing
in
thefiJth
ce,xtu{y
-
antl
.litr
many of
that
period\
events
and
much
of
its chronology
-
we
haue
to
loole
to
iltnntilcs.
()hronicles
became
a
signficant
form
oJ
historical
writing
in
the
western
empire
in
the
.liurth
century under
the
infiuence
of
the
work
l<nown as
Eusebius-Jerome.
This
ilut
,t
ruorld
chronicle,
setting
out
in
tabular
Jorm
biblical,
secular,
and
ecclesiastical
his-
tory.liom
Abraham
to
the
present.The original
version was
written'in
Greek
by
the
rc'ldmn'd
church
historian Eusebius
(ca.
z6o-i4o), bkhop
of
Caesarea;
it
suruiues now
uly
in.fïagments
and
in
Armenian and
l-atin
translations.
In
j9o,
Saint
Jerome
(ca.
j1:-4io),adapted
an edition of Eusebius\
work.
that
ended in
A.D.
jz5,
translating
it
Ittto Lrrtin and
bringing
euents
down
to
the
year
j78.
It
was
Jerome's
I-atin
uersion
llnl
lrymme
infiuential
in
the
west,
and
his
ffirt
to
bring the
chronicle
up to
date
b*,ttttc
,r
modelJor
western
practitioners of chronicle
historiography.The main
chronicles
Itiurslûed
here
are
all
continuations
of
Jerome
and
record
people
and
euents oJ
recent
hittory.
'l'lu'y
often
do so
in
a
deliberatefashion
that
belies
their
appearance
as
sterile
com-
pctilit
t»f
haphazard data.
The
chronicle
Jorm
may
not
immediately
invite
reflectiue
n'iiliu.q,
ltut
modern scholarship has
shown
how
the
genre
in
its late
antiqwe
and eaily
nrtlirwl
.form
desert,es
to
be treated as
the
purytoseful construct
of
authors
with
distinct
Itttrttliotts.
For this
reason,
not to
mention the
intrinsic
interest
and
sometimes unique
tnltr
of'
their
contents,
I
have
included
large
excerpts
from
the chronicles
and
attemptedtrttnybtcness
ouer
a substantial
range
of
entries.
I
ltnve
also
kept
some,
though
not
all,
chronologiul
trappings
of
the
chronicles.
llrttrttion
oJ contemporary
dating
conventions
is
often
a
necessity:
not
all
chronicle
t'tttriu
can
be reduced
to simple, standard
anno
domini
dating. Rcaders
should
also
be
ûu\ut'
( l
the
nwmber
of
chronological systems
available
to
thosc
recortling
euents;
for
rlrrotrolo.gy was,
among other things,
an
aspect oJ
historical
scU'-conseiouvrcss
and
a
refi-
trtiott
qf
the
the public
face
of
the Roman
state.
Finally,
sonc
undarstdnding
of
the
nttir'ly
ttf
systems
in
use
in
theffth
and
sixth
centuie5 and
tlu'ir
impcrfictions,
may
Itrly
n'dders
understand the practical
problems Jaced
by
nwdcrn atrd
dildcnt
sch()lars
ttyi,t.( to
reconstruct
a chronologicalframeworkfor historical n.tftttlit4',
 
16.
PROSPER
OF
AQUITAINE
Prosper
oJ
Aquitaine
(or
ProsJter
Tiro)
was
d
natiue
oJ
Giaut
who tpent
nuu'lr
ü'
his
aduh
lfe
in
Rome.
He
may
haue
held
an
impofiant
position in
papal
drcles,
possibly
dying
in
463.
Pyosper
was deeply inuolued
in
the
theological disputes
of his rlay
in
both
Caul
and
Rome,
especially thase
concerning
grace
and
free
will.
Hk
ehronicle
is
just
one
oJhis
works,
Itwas
conceiueil
as
an
abbreyiation
of thefamous
chronicle
oJJerome,
with
an
original continuation by
Prosper himselJ
that
began
in
j78;it
was
composed
ina
number of editions
between
4y
and
455.
Prosper\
chronicle was infiuenced .by
another
Jorm
of
contemporary
historical
recoril-
keeping,
consulay
annals.
Sinæ Republican
times, the
year
in
Roman
practice
had
been
named'after the two
consuls
who
took
ffice
on
t
January;by
late imperial
conuention,one consul was
named
from
the West
and
one
ÿom
the
East.
Lists of
these
consuls cir-culated,
often
with
octasional
and
brieJ
annotations
that might
be
used
by
chroniclers
orhistorians; suruiving
examples
of
annals
sometimes contain
ytrecise
dates
for
importantpublic
euents.
Proslter adopted consular
chronology
for
his
chronicle,
combining
it
with
a
system
of his own
deuising
that
numbered
years
from Christ\
crucifixion.
In
the
excerpts below,
a
selection
of
the
years
Jor
the
eailier
portions
of
Prosper\continuation
is
giuen.
From
the
year
4og the
chronicle
is
complete;
the
years
»ith
con-
suls
but no
euents
giuen
in
Mommsen's
edition
haue
been
omitted.
No
attempt
has
been made
to
distinguish
uarious
recensions,
but
in
a
couple
of
cases
I
haue
giuen vari-
ants.
I
haue combined
the dating
schemes
into
one
line:
the number
oJ
the
years
from
Chrbt\
passion,
followed
by
the
names
(usually two)
of
the
consuls
for
the
year in
question.
Prosper\ dating can readily be
incorporated
into
the later anno
domini
scheme
of dating, which
has
been
placed
in
the
margin.
Source:
Prosperi
Tironis
epitoma chronicon,
ed.
Th.
Mommsen,
Clronlca
Mitora
r,
MGH
AA
9
(r892), pp. 385-485.Translation by
A.C.
Murray.
a.37e
Year 352
[from
Christh
passion].Âusonius
and
Olybrius
[consuls].
-
...In
this
period,
Priscillian,
bishop
of
Gallaecia,
established
from
thedogma
of
the
Manichees
and
Gnostics
the
heresy
bearing his
name.
a.
i8r
Year
354.
Syagrius and Eucherius.
Martin,
bishop
of the,city
of Tours
in
Gaul, was
famous
for
many
exam-ples
o[
miracles...
a.
382
Year
355.Antonius
and
Syagrius.
Athanaric,
king of
the
Goths, was
killed
at
Constantinople
on
the
fifteenth
day after
he
had been received thcre...
a.
384
Year
357.
Richomer
and
C)learclrus.
Honorius, the
son ofTheod«rsius
wrs born.
§iriciur'pr$ided
over thê
Romen
church
Efter
Drnnnrut
ü
tha
thirry*ixth
buhop'
In
Britein
Maximus
wâs
medc empercr
by
a mudny
of
the
loldiers, He;6Etl
crïri3ed
ov€r
to
Gaul.
Gratian was
dcfcatcd at
Parii through the
treach-
Ë{
of
thc
mester
of
the
soldiers, Merobaudes,
end f,eeing
was
captured
and
lÉlled at Lyons.
Maximus
mâde his
sonVictor
his
colleague
in
power.
Valentinian
[l],
forty-second
emperor,
reigned
for
I
years
with
Theodo-liur,Ye.r
ish.
nt
adius and Bauto,,,,Priscillian,
knowing
he
would
be condemned
at
the
Synod
of Bordeaux,
rpperled
to
the
emperor [Maximus].
He
was
tried
at
Trier
and, along
with
Ettcltnltia,
wife
of
Delfidius
the
teacher
of
rhetoric,
Latroniânus,
and
other
Psrtners
in
his
error,
wâs
put
to
death
by
Euvodius, Maximus's praetorianpref'ect,At Bordeaux
a
cefiatî
disciple
of
Priscillian
called
Urbica
was
stoned.
to
dcatl'r
on
account
of
her
pbstinate
impiety by
an
unruly
mob.
Yelr
3fir.Theodosius
for
the
second
time
and
Cynegius.
'l'he
usurper
Maximus,
despoiled
of
his royal
garments, appeared before
Vele
tttinian
and
Theodosius at
the
third
milestone from Aquilea
and was
con-
deurned
to
death.
His
sonVictor
was
killed
in
Gaul
by
Count
Arbogàst
in
the
mnlc
yeâr.
Yclr
36z.Timasius and
Promotlls.llishops Itacius and
lJrsacius,
on
account
of
the
destruction
of
Priscillian,
wlrose
accusers
they
were, were
deprived
of the
communion
of
the
church.
Yeur
365.Arcadius
for
the
second
time
and
Rufinus.
'l'he
extreme severiry
of
Arbogast, master
of
the
soldiers,
droveValentinian
tnt()
committing suicide
at
Vienne
by
hanging himself.
On
the
death
of
Valcntinian, Arbogast,
who
was
burdened
with
the
way
the
emperor died,
as
corrrrnander
of
the
army, made
Eugenius emperor
in
Gaul''I'heodosius,
forry+hird
emperor, already
in
power
for
14 years,
reigned
for
I
yclrs
with
his
sons
Arcadius and Honorius.
Yclr
367.Arcadius
for
the
third
time
and
Honorius
for
the
second.
.fohn
the
hermit monk
was
renowned.
He
had been granted
the
gift of
prophecy and
predicted that
Theodosius,
who
was consulting
him
on
the
outcome
of
the
campaign
he
was
mounting
against
Eugenius,
would
be
vic-
lorious.
 
â.3ej
Year 368.
Olybrius
end
Prrbinur,
Theodosius
defeated and
killed
Eugcnius,
Augustine,
the
disciplc
of
the
blessed
Ambrose and eminent
ln
eloquenceand
learning,
was made
bishop at
Hippo
in Africa'
At
this time,
Claudian,
the
distinguished poet, became
well
known.Theodosius died
at
Milan.
Arcadius,
forty-fourth
emperor,
already
in
power
fot
tz
yeats,
reigned
13
years
with
his
brother Honorius...a.4o6
Year
379.Arcadius
for
the sixth
time
and
Probus.
vandals
and
Alans
crossed
the
Rhine
and
entered
Gaul
on
December 3r.
a.4o7
Year
38o.
Honorius
ôr
the
seventh
time
andTheodosius
for
the
second.
Constanline
arose
in
Britain
as
a
usurper
and
crossed
to
Gaul.
a.
4o8
Year 38r.
Bassus
and Philippus.
Arcadius died
in
ConstantinoPle.
Honorius,
forthy-fifth
emperor,
reigned
for
r5
years
with
Theodosius
[II],
the
son
of
Honorius's brother.a.4oe year
3gz.
Honorius for
the eighth
time
andTheodosius
for
the third.
TheVandals
took
Spain.
Attalus
was made
emperor at
Rome. He
was
soon deprived
of
power butremained
connected
with
the
Goths.
a.4ro
Year
383. SenatorVaranes.
Rome
was captured
by
the
Goths under
the
command of
Alaric'
and
for
this
reason
there
was
on-try
a consul
for
the
east,
a
practice
followed the
next
year
as
well.
Year
384.
Augustus Theodosius
ôr
the
fourth
time'
constantine
was defeated
and
captured
by
Honorius's
generals,
constan-
tius
and
Ulfila,
at
the
town ofArles. Count
Gerontius
killed
Constantine's
son
Oonstans,
who
had begun
his
rule
in
Spain, passing
the
usurper's
role
to
a
ecftilirl
Maximus.
ar
*g
YÉêt
3t5.
Hçnorius for
the
ninth
time
and
Theodosius
for
the
fifth.
In
§prin
Maxiurlrs
was removed
from
power
and was
granted
his
life
ill-v/i11
lfeUæ
€he
mOdereti.u and insignificance
of
the man did
not
merit
§}d
hir
effêctltiort of ltrthoriry.
At
thic time,
Hetos,
r
holy
nan
and dieeiple
of
blomcd
Mrtda'
wru
driræn
out
of
Arles
by iB
people
while
he
preBided
over
the eity
nl
bbhopi
he
wao
S,itrtu*
end
ntt
*uUjo.t
to
âny
ehârgÇ,
In
his place $,e od.in_ed
Patttelus,
Érieud
and acquâintence
of
Constantius, master
of
the
soldie*,
whose
fevor
he
prucured,
This
affair
wâs a subject
of
great disagrccments
âmong the
bishops
of thc
region,
l,
4?,
Yeer'.11i6.
Senator Lucius.
His
colleague
in
the
consulship was Heraclian'
who
was responsible
forFvolution in Africa
and
deprived
of
his
honor
and his
life'
The
tsurgundians acquired
part
of
Gaul
near
the
Rhine'The
brothers Jovinus
and
Sebastian seized
power
in
Gaul
and
were
killed'
At
that
time
the
Briton
Pelagius
set
forth
the doctrine
bearing
his
name
egainst
the
grace
of
Christ;
Caelestius
and
Julian
[of Eclanum] were his
assis.
trnts,
He
attracted
many people
to
his
erroneous
views'
He
proclaimed that
enclt person
is guided
to
righteousness
by
his
own
will
and
receives
as
much
grâ(:eashedeserves,sinceÀdam'ssininjuredonlyhimselfanddidnotalso
iriuct
his
descendants.
For this
reason
it
would
be
possible
for
those
so
wishingto
bt:
completely
without
sin and
for
all
little
children
to
be
born
as
innocent
àr wâs
the first
man before
transgression;
nor
are
children
to
be baptized
so
tlteycanbedivestedofsinbutsotheycanbehonoredwiththesacramentof
ndoPtion.
i.4ir
Yerrr
387.
Constantius
and
Constans'
Attalus
on the
advice
of
the
Goths and
with
their
help
resumed
the
role
ol
ttsurper
in
Gaul.
,
']
i'
Yclrr388.HonoriusforthetenthtimeandTheodosiusforthesixth.AttaluswasabandonedbytheGoths,whoremovedthemselvestoSpain,
,rtrrl,
deprived
of their
support,
was captured
and
presented alive
to
Constan-tirts
the
patrician.
Athaulf,woundedbyoneofhisownmen'died'and'Walliaseizedhis
kirrgdomafterdestroyingthosewhowerethoughttowantthesamething.
l":,1
Y...':Ag.th.odosius for
the
seventh
time
and Palladius'
s".ti.rg
peace
with
Honorius,
wallia
restored
the
daughter
of
the
emperor
'l'hcodosius
[I],
Placidia,
whom the
Goths
had
captured and
whom
Athaulf
Itacl
married,
and Constantius
won
her hand
in
marriage'
Zosimus
took up
the
episcopal
ofiice
of
the Roman
church'
He
was the
llrirry-ninth
bishoP.
At
this
time the
Pelagians,
already condemned
by
Pope
Innocent'
v/ere
Cbthr
enteretl
(iatrl
under
King
Athaulf.

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