Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword or section
Like this
19Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Review of Critical Issues

Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Review of Critical Issues

Ratings: (0)|Views: 5,757|Likes:
Published by Ricardo
Journal Vol 18-1-6 Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Review of Critical Issues
Journal Vol 18-1-6 Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Review of Critical Issues

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Law
Published by: Ricardo on Nov 30, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

07/10/2013

pdf

text

original

 
\\server05\productn\M\MAT\18-1\MAT109.txtunknownSeq: 1 8-OCT-0313:41
Vol. 18, 2002Parental Alienation Syndrome
131
Parental Alienation Syndrome:A Review of Critical Issues
byIra Turkat*
I.Introduction
Attorneys who litigate child custody cases are accustomed tohearing clients charge that their children are being turned againstthem by the other parent.
1
Allegations of this sort elicit a com-plex array of questions, consequences, and emotions. The mostimportant consideration in these circumstances is that when anallegation of this kind is raised it does not bode well for the chil-dren involved.
2
If the allegation of manipulation against the other parent isfalse, then one parent seriously misinterprets certain familial be-havior or is lying about the actions of the other parent. Neitherexemplifies the kind of role modeling to which children shouldbe exposed.
*Dr. Turkat is a psychologist in Venice, Florida, and is Courtesy ClinicalAssociate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Flor-ida College of Medicine.
1
See
Stanley S. Clawar & Brynne V. Rivlin,
Children Held Hostage:Dealing with Programmed and Brainwashed Children
(1991); Kenneth Byrne,
Brainwashing in Custody Cases: The Parental Alienation Syndrome
, 4 A
USTL
.F
AM
. L. 1 (1989); Michael R. Walsh & J. Michael Bone,
Parental AlienationSyndrome: An Age-Old Custody Problem
, 71 F
LA
. B.J. 93 (1997).
2
At a minimum, this indicates the existence of significant conflict be-tween the parents, and there is ample scientific evidence that interparental con-flict can be harmful to the children involved. Paul Amato & Alan Booth,
TheLegacy of Parents’ Marital Discord: Consequences for Children’s Marital Qual-ity
, 81 J. P
ERS
. S
OC
. P
SYCHOL
. 627 (2001); Paul Amato & Bruce Keith,
Parental Divorce and the Well-Being of Children: A Meta-Analysis
, 110 P
SYCHOL
. B
ULL
.26 (1991); Katherine M. Kitzmann & Robert E. Emery,
Child and Family Cop-ing One Year After Mediated and Litigated Child Custody Disputes
, 8 J. F
AM
.P
SYCHOL
. 150 (1994); Anita K. Lampel,
Children’s Alignment With Parents inHighly Conflicted Custody Cases
,34 F
AM
. & C
ONCILIATION
. C
TS
. R
EV
. 229(1996).
 
\\server05\productn\M\MAT\18-1\MAT109.txtunknownSeq: 2 8-OCT-0313:41
132
 JournaloftheAmericanAcademyofMatrimonialLawyers
When the allegation of alienation is true and
deserved
,
3
thenone parent has behaved in a way that hurts the children; if properwarnings are not given, these minors would be inadequately pro-tected. An example of a parent deserving alienation would beone with a repeated history of physically abusing his or her chil-dren in an unpredictable manner that has failed to respond ap-propriately to numerous professional attempts to control thedestructive behaviors.If the allegation that one parent is turning the childrenagainst the other parent is true but the alienation is unjustified,this too is harmful to the children. It is this special category of abuse
4
that will be the focus of the present paper.In light of the seriousness of unjustly turning a child againsthis or her own parent, it is appropriate for the judiciary to look tomental health professions for guidance. Unfortunately, for manyyears the problem of unjust alienation received inadequate atten-tion in the psychological literature.
5
This began to change in1985 when the American Academy of Psychoanalysis publishedan article by Dr. Richard Gardner, a psychiatrist from ColumbiaUniversity, who identified an abnormality termed
Parental Alien-ation Syndrome
, defined as follows:
The parental alienation syndrome (PAS) is a disorder that arises pri-marily in the context of child-custody disputes. Its primary manifesta-tion is the child’s campaign of denigration against the parent, acampaign that has no justification. The disorder results from the com-bination of indoctrinations by the alienating parent and the child’sown contributions to the vilification of the alienated parent.
6
Over the years, this description has given rise to a literatureconsisting of over 100 professional articles and books on PAS
3
Naturally, there may be debate about what qualifies as
deserved
, butfor the purpose of this manuscript, the author is referring to harmful behaviorsthat all observers would agree on categorizing as
deserved
.
4
See
Richard A. Gardner,
Differentiating Between the Parental Aliena-tion Syndrome and Bona Fide Abuse-Neglect 
, 27 A
M
. J. F
AM
. T
HERAPY
97(1999).
5
See
Ira Daniel Turkat,
Child Visitation Interference in Divorce
, 14C
LINICAL
P
SYCHOL
. R
EV
. 737 (1994).
6
See
Richard A. Gardner,
Recent Trends in Divorce and Custody Litiga-tion
, 29 A
CAD
. F. 3 (1985).
 
\\server05\productn\M\MAT\18-1\MAT109.txtunknownSeq: 3 8-OCT-0313:41
Vol. 18, 2002Parental Alienation Syndrome
133that offers clinical characterizations, theoretical formulations,and considerable controversy.
7
The present article will analyze some of the key features of this literature.
8
To begin, the author will lay a foundation forunderstanding PAS by reviewing its definitional criteria, its pos-tulated pathogenesis, and its subtypes. Next, PAS’ placement inpsychiatric classification, including its relationship to official di-agnostic categories of psychopathology, will be delineated. Thearticle then reviews the state of the research literature on PAS.In particular, specific indicators for evaluating the progress of any clinical field of science will be provided and then applied tothe psychological literature on PAS. This evaluation will revealstrengths and weaknesses in the current PAS literature. Specificobstacles to performing scientific investigations of PAS will beidentified and suggestions for improving the sophistication of theliterature will be presented. Finally, recommendations for judgesmanaging PAS cases will be offered, and several problems thatconfront the judiciary and trial attorneys when dealing with PAScases will be discussed. Various deficiencies that mental healthprofessionals bring to this controversial area will be identified aswell.
II.Parental Alienation Syndrome
In a nutshell, PAS occurs when one parent campaigns suc-cessfully to manipulate his or her children to despise the otherparent despite the absence of legitimate reasons for the childrento harbor such animosity. The effort to poison the relationship
9
between the offspring and the targeted parent may be extensiveand at times, relentless. The hostility may include “hints” of sex-
7
See
Richard A. Gardner,
Parental Alienation Syndrome: Sixteen YearsLater 
, 45 A
CAD
. F. 10 (2001).
8
A comprehensive review of the literature on Parental Alienation Syn-drome is beyond the scope of the present manuscript.
See
,
e.g
., Deirdre Con-way Rand,
The Spectrum of Parental Alienation Syndrome (Part I)
, 15 A
M
. J.F
ORENSIC
P
SYCHOL
. 23 (1997); Deirdre Conway Rand,
The Spectrum of Paren-tal Alienation Syndrome (Part II)
, 15 A
M
. J. F
ORENSIC
P
SYCHOL
. 39 (1997).
9
See
Ira Daniel Turkat,
Relationship Poisoning in Custody and AccessDisputes
, 13 A
M
. J. F
AM
. L. 101 (1999).

Activity (19)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
shadowling liked this
johnnyc0404 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->