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WHITE MEN’S HEGEMONY IN THE IGBO TRIBE IN CHINUA ACHEBE’S THINGS FALL APART

WHITE MEN’S HEGEMONY IN THE IGBO TRIBE IN CHINUA ACHEBE’S THINGS FALL APART

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WHITE MEN’S HEGEMONY IN THE IGBO TRIBE IN CHINUAACHEBE’S THINGS FALL APART
A. Background of the Study
Word set apart in some way from ordinary everyday communication. In theancient oral traditions, before stories and poems were written down, literature had amainly public function-mythic and religious. As literary works came to be preservedin writing and eventually, printed, their role become more private, serving as avehicle for the exploration and expression of emotion and the human situation.(http://literary work - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about literary work.htm)So, literatures become one of forms of expression of life and it can never be separatedfrom human life. Nowadays, literature is also useful for our life. Besides the functionsas entertainment, literature also has functions as education. As the entertainment, theauthor tries to present literature as beautifully as possible so that the reader can feelsenjoy to read it. Whereas, as education, literature gives a lesson about life becauseliterature is the expression of human’s problem.There are three main genres in literary work. Those are prose, poetry anddrama. They are all very interesting to read. However, the work that will be taken inthis thesis is prose, especially novel, because it is unlike drama and poetry. Proseincludes the character’s actions, conversation, thoughts and feelings. It makes thereader may put themselves in the story and experience the events in the novel as if thereader were in the same situation. By reading a novel, the readers can grab and catch
 
the ideas and messages that the author wants to tell. Moreover the reader canrecognize the history and the culture of the society at the certain time. As Smith has been said that, “all literature might be said to be shaped as it is by the social and political circumstances under which it is produced” (Smith, 1993: ix). For the reasonabove, the writer decides to discuss a novel, especially African novelAfrican literature is literary works of the African continent. African literatureconsists of a body of work in different languages and various genres, ranging fromoral literature to literature written in colonial languages. As George Joseph notes onthe first page of his chapter on African literature in
Understanding Contemporary Africa
, while the European perception of literature generally refers to written letters,the African concept includes oral literature. As George Joseph continues, whileEuropean views of literature often stressed a separation of art and content, Africanawareness is inclusive: "Literature" can also imply an artistic use of words for thesake of art alone. Without denying the important role of aesthetics in Africa, weshould keep in mind that, traditionally, Africans do not radically separate art fromteaching. Rather than write or sing for beauty in itself, African writers, taking their cue from oral literature, use beauty to help communicate important truths andinformation to society. Indeed, an object is considered beautiful because of the truthsit reveals and the communities it helps to build.(
George, Joseph, "African Literature" chptr. 12 of 
Understanding Contemporary Africa
p.304
)Since the early 19
th
century, writers from western Africa have usednewspapers to air their views. Several founded newspapers that served as vehicles for 
 
expressing nascent nationalist feelings. And After World War II, as Africans begandemanding their independence, more African writers were published. Such writers as,in western Africa, ChinuaAchebe,WoleSoyinka,, OusmaneSembene, Kofi Awooner, Agostinho Neto, Tchicaya u tam'si, Camera Laye, Mongo Beti, Ben Okri,and FerdinandOyonoand, in eastern Africa, Ngugi wa Thiong'o, Okot p'Bitek , and Jacques Rabémananjara produced poetry, short stories, novels, essays, and plays. Allwere writing in European languages, and often they shared the same themes: the clash between indigenous and colonial cultures, condemnation of European subjugation, pride in the African past, and hope for the continent's independent future.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_literature)One of the famous African writers is Chinua Achebe. He is one of the mostimportant living African writers and also considered one of the most original literaryartists currently writing in English. Achebe was born on 16
th
November, 1930. Hewas raised by Christian evangelical parents in the large village Ogidi, in Igboland, Nigeria. He received early education in English, but grew up surrounded by thecomplex fusion of Igbo tradition and the colonial legacy. Starting in the 1950’s,Achebe was central to a new Nigerian literary movement that drew on the oraltraditions of Nigeria’s indigenous tribes. Although Achebe writes in English, heattempts to incorporate Igbo vocabulary and narratives. Achebe has been active in Nigerian politics since the 1960s. Many of his novels deal with the social and political problems facing his country, including the difficulty of the post-coloniallegacy. Moreover Achebe's novels focus on the traditions of Igbo society, the effectof Christian influences, and the clash of values during and after the colonial era. A lot

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