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Basic Symbolic Logic

# Basic Symbolic Logic

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Basic Symbolic Logic
Text forLogic 2003A: Symbolic Logic I
Kent A. PeacockDepartment of Philosophy,University of Lethbridge.August 27, 2007

2005, 2006, 2007 Kent A. Peacock

Preface
The purpose of this text is to provide a correct but ﬂexible command of symbolic logic up to
but not including
the point at which one can begin to study metalogic (the “logic of logic”).As such, it covers most of the material usually covered in a typical second-year universitycourse on symbolic logic, including such time-honoured topics as truth tables, truth trees,and natural deduction for propositional and ﬁrst-order predicate logic (without and withidentity). A working command of these techniques is simply assumed in the the literatureon analytic philosophy, mathematical logic, foundations of mathematics, computer science,and much of physical science.A concluding chapter introduces the reader brieﬂy and qualitatively to some of the richesthat lie beyond, including modal and deviant logics, G¨odel, Turing, artiﬁcial intelligence,and quantum computing. Not everyone will wish to explore such advanced topics in detail,but every student of philosophy and logic should be aware that such things exist, and haveat least a passing acquaintance with them.The aim of this text is not to present a rigorous development of propositional andpredicate logic from the simplest and most general ﬁrst principles available, but to oﬀer aworkaday (but of course valid!) system of logic that will be as
useful
as possible, both forbeginning logicians who may later wish to go on to a more foundational treatment, and alsothose many others who are interested in logic more as a tool than for its own sake.One might naturally ask why the world needs to be blessed with yet another logic text,when there are so many excellent texts on the market now. Like almost everyone whohas taught logic, I could not avoid reconstructing it in my own way. I ended up with anapproach that I believe is a useful complement to other methods of teaching this sort of logic. And there is room for new approaches, for the fact remains that elementary logic,unlike certain parts of elementary mathematics, is still a developing subject. I modestlybelieve that the approach I present here has an advantage over many other texts at a similarlevel because of its emphasis on ﬂexibility and ease of use.The choice of topics in this text was designed in particular to meet the needs of thesecond-year symbolic logic course at the University of Lethbridge. We have a ﬁrst yearcourse that is mostly informal logic and critical thinking (with a smattering of “baby”deductive logic), a second-year course called Symbolic Logic I, that introduces the formalmethods of classical two-valued Boolean logic (primarily propositional and predicate calcu-lus)
up to
the point at which one can begin to do metatheory, and then a third-year course,Symbolic Logic II, in which those who are so inclined can ﬁnally dip into metatheory.The tabular notation for natural deduction I used here is adapted with some simpliﬁ-cations from that used in superb but now largely out-dated texts by Mates and Lemmon[18, 17], supplemented with the highly eﬃcient truth tree techniques pioneered by Jeﬀreyiii