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giáo trình kinh tế lượng Ch14

giáo trình kinh tế lượng Ch14

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Published by: api-19852739 on Nov 30, 2009
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Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh Gia\u00fbng da\u00efy Kinh te\u00e1 Fulbright
Nie\u00e2n kho\u00f9a 2003-2004
Ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p pha\u00e2n t\u00edch
Ba\u00f8i \u00f1o\u00efc
Nha\u00e4p mo\u00e2n kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng
Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng 14: Th\u00f6\u00efc hie\u00e4n mo\u00e4t \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i th\u00f6\u00efc nghie\u00e4m
Ramu Ramanathan
Thu\u00efc \u00d1oan/Ha\u00f8o Thi
CH\u00d6\u00d4NG 14
Th\u00f6\u00efc Hie\u00e4n Mo\u00e4t \u00d1e\u00e0 Ta\u00f8i Th\u00f6\u00efc Nghie\u00e4m

Trong Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng 1, chu\u00f9ng to\u00e2i \u00f1a\u00f5\u00fb mo\u00e2 ta\u00fb to\u00e5ng qua\u00f9t ca\u00f9c b\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c tie\u00e1n ha\u00f8nh mo\u00e4t nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u th\u00f6\u00efc nghie\u00e4m, t\u00f6\u00f8 vie\u00e4c xa\u00f9c \u00f1\u00f2nh va\u00e1n \u00f1e\u00e0 nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u \u00f1e\u00e1n die\u00e3n d\u00f2ch ke\u00e1t qua\u00fb. Ma\u00ebc du\u00f8 pha\u00e0n l\u00f4\u00f9n ca\u00f9c ch\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh ba\u00f8y nh\u00f6\u00f5ng \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng minh ho\u00efa d\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9i da\u00efng ca\u00f9c \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i nho\u00fb, sinh vie\u00e2n se\u00f5 ho\u00efc \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc nhie\u00e0u h\u00f4n ve\u00e0 kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng t\u00f6\u00f8 mo\u00e4t \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i th\u00f6\u00efc nghie\u00e4m hoa\u00f8n ch\u00e6nh h\u00f4n la\u00f8 t\u00f6\u00f8 ha\u00f8ng ta\u00f9 ba\u00f8i gia\u00fbng. Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng na\u00f8y se\u00f5 tr\u00ecnh ba\u00f8y sa\u00e2u h\u00f4n t\u00f6\u00f8ng b\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c \u00f1a\u00f5 \u00f1e\u00e0 ca\u00e4p trong Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng 1. Ne\u00e1u gia\u00fbng vie\u00e2n ye\u00e2u ca\u00e0u th\u00f6\u00efc hie\u00e4n mo\u00e4t \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i th\u00f6\u00efc nghie\u00e4m, sinh vie\u00e2n ne\u00e2n nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u ch\u00f6\u00f4ng na\u00f8y tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c, \u00f1a\u00ebc bie\u00e4t la\u00f8 nh\u00f6\u00f5ng pha\u00e0n ve\u00e0 thie\u00e1t la\u00e4p va\u00e1n \u00f1e\u00e0 nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u, xa\u00f9c \u00f1\u00f2nh mo\u00e2 h\u00ecnh xua\u00e1t pha\u00f9t da\u00efng to\u00e5ng qua\u00f9t va\u00f8 thu tha\u00e4p d\u00f6\u00f5 lie\u00e4u.

Nh\u00f6 co\u00f9 ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i \u00f1a\u00f5 ke\u00e1t lua\u00e4n, kho\u00e2ng co\u00f9 ca\u00f9ch duy nha\u00e1t \u00f1e\u00e5 tie\u00e1n ha\u00f8nh mo\u00e4t nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u th\u00f6\u00efc nghie\u00e4m va\u00f8 kho\u00e2ng co\u00f9 mo\u00e4t co\u00e2ng th\u00f6\u00f9c ky\u00f8 die\u00e4u na\u00f8o co\u00f9 the\u00e5 a\u00f9p du\u00efng. Th\u00f6\u00efc ha\u00f8nh la\u00f8 ca\u00f9ch duy nha\u00e1t \u00f1e\u00e5 ho\u00efc ca\u00f9c b\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c ba\u00e8ng ca\u00f9ch \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng va\u00f8o nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u va\u00f8 pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n tr\u00f6\u00efc gia\u00f9c ca\u00e0n thie\u00e1t \u00f1e\u00e5 nha\u00e4n \u00f1\u00f2nh ca\u00f9c ke\u00e1t qua\u00fb va\u00f8 ca\u00f9c ke\u00e1t lua\u00e4n ru\u00f9t ra. V\u00ec va\u00e4y ch\u00f6\u00f4ng na\u00f8y ch\u00e6 co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f1\u00f6a ra nh\u00f6\u00f5ng h\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9ng da\u00e3n chung va\u00f8 ca\u00f9c g\u00f4\u00efi y\u00f9 \u00f1e\u00e5 th\u00f6\u00efc hie\u00e4n.

14.1 Cho\u00efn \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i

Ne\u00e1u ba\u00efn la\u00f8 mo\u00e4t nha\u00f8 nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u chuye\u00e2n nghie\u00e4p, va\u00e1n \u00f1e\u00e0 nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc xa\u00f9c \u00f1\u00f2nh b\u00f4\u00fbi ye\u00e2u ca\u00e0u cu\u00fba co\u00e2ng vie\u00e4c va\u00f8/hoa\u00ebc do ca\u00e1p tre\u00e2n ch\u00e6 \u00f1\u00f2nh. V\u00ed du\u00ef, mo\u00e4t trong nh\u00f6\u00f5ng nhie\u00e4m vu\u00ef ch\u00ednh cu\u00fba nha\u00f8 pha\u00e2n t\u00edch trong bo\u00e4 pha\u00e4n d\u00f6\u00ef ba\u00f9o cu\u00fba nga\u00f8nh \u00f1ie\u00e4n l\u00f6\u00efc la\u00f8 \u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng lie\u00e2n he\u00e4 gi\u00f6\u00f5a nhu ca\u00e0u ve\u00e0 \u00f1ie\u00e4n va\u00f8 ca\u00f9c ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 a\u00fbnh h\u00f6\u00f4\u00fbng nh\u00f6 th\u00f4\u00f8i tie\u00e1t va\u00f8 tie\u00e2u thu\u00ef theo mu\u00f8a, gia\u00f9 \u00f1ie\u00e4n, thu nha\u00e4p, loa\u00efi ma\u00f9y mo\u00f9c gia du\u00efng, \u00f1a\u00ebc \u00f1ie\u00e5m \u00f1\u00f2a ly\u00f9, co\u00e2ng nghie\u00e4p cu\u00fba n\u00f4i phu\u00efc vu\u00ef \u2026v.v. Mo\u00e1i lie\u00e2n he\u00e4 \u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng sau \u00f1o\u00f9 se\u00f5 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc du\u00f8ng \u00f1e\u00e5 t\u00ednh ca\u00f9c gia\u00f9 tr\u00f2 d\u00f6\u00ef ba\u00f9o l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng \u00f1ie\u00e4n. Ca\u00f9c gia\u00f9 tr\u00f2 d\u00f6\u00ef ba\u00f9o na\u00f8y \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc nga\u00f8nh \u00f1ie\u00e4n l\u00f6\u00efc tie\u00e5u bang xem xe\u00f9t \u00f1e\u00e5 quye\u00e1t \u00f1\u00f2nh ca\u00e1u tru\u00f9c gia\u00f9 m\u00f4\u00f9i nh\u00f6 the\u00e1 na\u00f8o va\u00f8 co\u00f9 ca\u00e0n pha\u00fbi xa\u00e2y d\u00f6\u00efng the\u00e2m nha\u00f8 ma\u00f9y na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng m\u00f4\u00f9i \u00f1e\u00e5 \u00f1a\u00f9p \u00f6\u00f9ng nhu ca\u00e0u ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i da\u00e2n trong khu v\u00f6\u00efc hay kho\u00e2ng. Trong v\u00ed du\u00ef na\u00f8y, de\u00e3 da\u00f8ng ne\u00e2u ra va\u00e1n \u00f1e\u00e0 nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u la\u00f8 lie\u00e2n he\u00e4 gi\u00f6\u00f5a nhu ca\u00e0u \u00f1ie\u00e4n v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 a\u00fbnh h\u00f6\u00f4\u00fbng \u00f1e\u00e1n nhu ca\u00e0u na\u00f8y, va\u00f8 pha\u00f9t ra ca\u00f9c d\u00f6\u00ef ba\u00f9o.

Tuy nhie\u00e2n, ne\u00e1u ba\u00efn la\u00f8 sinh vie\u00e2n ho\u00efc mo\u00e2n kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng, gia\u00fbng vie\u00e2n co\u00f9 the\u00e5 ye\u00e2u ca\u00e0u ba\u00efn th\u00f6\u00efc hie\u00e4n mo\u00e4t \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i th\u00f6\u00efc nghie\u00e4m va\u00f8 co\u00f9 the\u00e5 se\u00f5 kho\u00e2ng ch\u00e6 ra \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i cu\u00ef the\u00e5 na\u00f8o ca\u00e0n quan ta\u00e2m nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u. Nhie\u00e4m vu\u00ef \u00f1a\u00e0u tie\u00e2n cu\u00fba sinh vie\u00e2n la\u00f8 cho\u00efn mo\u00e4t \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i \u00f1e\u00e5 nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u, vie\u00e4c na\u00f8y th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng da\u00e3n \u00f1e\u00e1n xua\u00e1t hie\u00e4n mo\u00e4t ca\u00e2u ho\u00fbi \u201cTo\u00e2i se\u00f5 la\u00f8m g\u00ec va\u00f8 ba\u00e9t \u00f1a\u00e0u nh\u00f6 the\u00e1 na\u00f8o?\u201d. \u00d1e\u00e5 tra\u00fb l\u00f4\u00f8i ca\u00e2u ho\u00fbi na\u00f8y, ha\u00f5y xem pha\u00e0n sau \u00f1a\u00e2y. Tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c khi ho\u00efc mo\u00e2n kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng, kho\u00e2ng nghi ng\u00f4\u00f8 g\u00ec ba\u00efn \u00f1a\u00f5 ho\u00efc ca\u00f9c mo\u00e2n kinh te\u00e1 kha\u00f9c, mo\u00e4t so\u00e1 co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f4\u00fb tr\u00ecnh \u00f1o\u00e4 cao. Ba\u00efn \u00f1a\u00f5 ho\u00efc nhie\u00e0u ly\u00f9 thuye\u00e1t ve\u00e0 ha\u00f8nh vi kinh te\u00e1 cu\u00fba mo\u00e4t chu\u00fb the\u00e5 va\u00f8 mo\u00e1i lie\u00e2n he\u00e4 gi\u00f6\u00f5a ca\u00f9c bie\u00e1n kinh te\u00e1. Va\u00e4y ha\u00f5y t\u00f6\u00ef ho\u00fbi nh\u00f6\u00f5ng lie\u00e2n he\u00e4 ly\u00f9 thuye\u00e1t na\u00f8o ba\u00efn \u00f1a\u00f5 ho\u00efc ca\u00e0n \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc \u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng th\u00f6\u00efc nghie\u00e4m va\u00f8 nh\u00f6\u00f5ng ly\u00f9 thuye\u00e1t na\u00f8o co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f1\u00f6a va\u00f8o kie\u00e5m \u00f1\u00f2nh trong th\u00f6\u00efc te\u00e1. Trong nh\u00f6\u00f5ng mo\u00e2n ho\u00efc ba\u00efn \u00f1a\u00f5 ho\u00efc, co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f1a\u00f5 co\u00f9 nh\u00f6\u00f5ng buo\u00e5i tha\u00fbo lua\u00e4n ve\u00e0 mo\u00e4t va\u00e1n \u00f1e\u00e0 hoa\u00ebc ve\u00e0 nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u cu\u00fba mo\u00e4t ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i na\u00f8o \u00f1o\u00f9 khie\u00e1n ba\u00efn quan ta\u00e2m. \u00d1o\u00f9 la\u00f8 nh\u00f6\u00f5ng va\u00e1n \u00f1e\u00e0 co\u00f9 the\u00e5 xem xe\u00f9t. Nh\u00f6\u00f5ng gia\u00f9o s\u00f6 da\u00efy ba\u00efn tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c \u00f1a\u00e2y co\u00f9 the\u00e5 ra\u00e1t sa\u00fcn lo\u00f8ng giu\u00f9p ba\u00efn ta\u00e4p trung va\u00f8o mo\u00e4t va\u00e1n \u00f1e\u00e0 nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u, nh\u00f6ng kho\u00e2ng ne\u00e2n

Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh Gia\u00fbng da\u00efy Kinh te\u00e1 Fulbright
Nie\u00e2n kho\u00f9a 2003-2004
Ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p pha\u00e2n t\u00edch
Ba\u00f8i \u00f1o\u00efc
Nha\u00e4p mo\u00e2n kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng
Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng 14: Th\u00f6\u00efc hie\u00e4n mo\u00e4t \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i th\u00f6\u00efc nghie\u00e4m
Ramu Ramanathan
Thu\u00efc \u00d1oan/Ha\u00f8o Thi
phu\u00ef thuo\u00e4c va\u00f8o ho\u00ef hoa\u00ebc tranh thu\u00fb s\u00f6\u00ef nhie\u00e4t t\u00ecnh cu\u00fba ho\u00ef. Mo\u00e4t so\u00e1 l\u00f3nh v\u00f6\u00efc co\u00f9 the\u00e5 quan ta\u00e2m

1.Kinh te\u00e1 v\u00f3 mo\u00e2: \u00d6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng mo\u00e4t ha\u00f8m nhu ca\u00e0u ve\u00e0 tie\u00e2u du\u00f8ng hoa\u00ebc \u00f1a\u00e0u t\u00f6 hoa\u00ebc ve\u00e0 tie\u00e0n te\u00e4. Nh\u00f6\u00f5ng \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i na\u00f8y \u00f1o\u00f8i ho\u00fbi pha\u00e2n t\u00edch chuo\u00e3i th\u00f4\u00f8i gian va\u00f8 \u00edt nha\u00e1t la\u00f8 hai giai \u00f1oa\u00efn. Ba\u00efn co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng cong Phillips v\u00f4\u00f9i d\u00f6\u00f5 lie\u00e4u quo\u00e1c te\u00e1 \u00f1o\u00e1i v\u00f4\u00f9i nhie\u00e0u n\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c hoa\u00ebc d\u00f6\u00f5 lie\u00e4u chuo\u00e3i th\u00f4\u00f8i gian v\u00f4\u00f9i mo\u00e4t n\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c xa\u00f9c \u00f1\u00f2nh. Ca\u00f9c \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i v\u00f3 mo\u00e2 co\u00f9 \u00f6u \u00f1ie\u00e5m la\u00f8 de\u00e3 da\u00f8ng thu tha\u00e4p d\u00f6\u00f5 lie\u00e4u.

2.Kinh te\u00e1 vi mo\u00e2: \u00d6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng ha\u00f8m sa\u00fbn xua\u00e1t, chi ph\u00ed, cung, va\u00f8 ca\u00e0u thuo\u00e4c nho\u00f9m na\u00f8y, nh\u00f6ng d\u00f6\u00f5
lie\u00e4u cu\u00fba nh\u00f6\u00f5ng \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i na\u00f8y no\u00f9i chung ra\u00e1t kho\u00f9 thu tha\u00e4p.

3.Kinh te\u00e1 \u00f1o\u00e2 th\u00f2, kinh te\u00e1 vu\u00f8ng: \u00d6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng nhu ca\u00e0u ve\u00e0 nha\u00f8 \u00f4\u00fb, tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng ho\u00efc, va\u00f8 ca\u00f9c d\u00f2ch vu\u00ef co\u00e2ng co\u00e4ng kha\u00f9c cho mo\u00e4t tha\u00f8nh pho\u00e1, th\u00f2 tra\u00e1n hoa\u00ebc tie\u00e5u bang. \u00d1o l\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng \u00f1o\u00e4 nha\u00efy cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c vu\u00f8ng co\u00e2ng nghie\u00e4p \u00f1o\u00e1i v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c vu\u00f8ng kha\u00f9c ve\u00e0 thue\u00e1 sua\u00e1t, gia\u00f9 na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng, lua\u00e4t \u00f1\u00f2a ph\u00f6\u00f4ng, co\u00e2ng \u00f1oa\u00f8n, lao \u00f1o\u00e4ng co\u00f9 tay nghe\u00e0\u2026v.v.

4.Kinh te\u00e1 quo\u00e1c te\u00e1: \u00d6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng ha\u00f8m nha\u00e4p kha\u00e5u va\u00f8 xua\u00e1t kha\u00e5u \u00f1o\u00e1i v\u00f4\u00f9i mo\u00e4t n\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c trong mo\u00e4t khoa\u00fbng th\u00f4\u00f8i gian hay gi\u00f6\u00f5a nhie\u00e0u n\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c. Lie\u00e2n he\u00e4 gi\u00f6\u00f5a ty\u00fb gia\u00f9 ho\u00e1i \u00f1oa\u00f9i va\u00f8 ca\u00f9c ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 quye\u00e1t \u00f1\u00f2nh ty\u00fb gia\u00f9 na\u00f8y.

5.Kinh te\u00e1 pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n: \u00d1o l\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng ca\u00f9c ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 quye\u00e1t \u00f1\u00f2nh thu nha\u00e4p \u00f1a\u00e0u ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i (GNP) gi\u00f6\u00f5a ca\u00f9c
6.Kinh te\u00e1 lao \u00f1o\u00e4ng: Kie\u00e5m \u00f1\u00f2nh gia\u00fb thuye\u00e1t ve\u00e0 co\u00e2ng \u00f1oa\u00f8n, ngh\u00e6 h\u00f6u s\u00f4\u00f9m, ty\u00fb le\u00e4 tham gia cu\u00fba
l\u00f6\u00efc l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng lao \u00f1o\u00e4ng, l\u00f6\u00f4ng kha\u00f9c bie\u00e4t gi\u00f6\u00f5a phu\u00ef n\u00f6\u00f5, nho\u00f9m thie\u00e5u so\u00e1 va\u00f8 lao \u00f1o\u00e4ng tre\u00fb \u2026v.v

7.To\u00e5 ch\u00f6\u00f9c co\u00e2ng nghie\u00e4p: \u00d1o l\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng ca\u00f9c a\u00fbnh h\u00f6\u00f4\u00fbng cu\u00fba qua\u00fbng ca\u00f9o \u00f1e\u00e1n doanh thu, l\u00f4\u00efi nhua\u00e4n, hoa\u00ebc \u00f1e\u00e1n m\u00f6\u00f9c \u00f1o\u00e4 ta\u00e4p trung (\u00f1o\u00f9 la\u00f8 th\u00f2 pha\u00e0n) trong nga\u00f8nh. \u00d6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng lie\u00e2n he\u00e4 gi\u00f6\u00f5a chi tie\u00e2u cho nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n (R&D) va\u00f8 na\u00eang sua\u00e1t lao \u00f1o\u00e4ng. Nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u lie\u00e2n he\u00e4 gi\u00f6\u00f5a ta\u00e4p trung nga\u00f8nh va\u00f8 l\u00f4\u00efi nhua\u00e4n do ca\u00f9c hoa\u00eft \u00f1o\u00e4ng sa\u00f9t nha\u00e4p. Tuy nhie\u00e2n, ba\u00efn ne\u00e2n ca\u00e5n tha\u00e4n v\u00ec ly\u00f9 do ba\u00fbo ma\u00e4t ca\u00f9c d\u00f6\u00f5 lie\u00e4u ve\u00e0 nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n, va\u00f8 nga\u00e2n sa\u00f9ch qua\u00fbng ca\u00f9o cu\u00fba mo\u00e4t co\u00e2ng ty trong th\u00f6\u00efc te\u00e1 se\u00f5 kho\u00e2ng the\u00e5 thu tha\u00e4p \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc.

8.Ta\u00f8i ch\u00ednh co\u00e2ng: \u00d6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng lie\u00e2n he\u00e4 gi\u00f6\u00f5a thue\u00e1 thu nha\u00e4p cu\u00fba ch\u00ednh phu\u00fb \u00f1\u00f2a ph\u00f6\u00f4ng va\u00f8 ca\u00f9c \u00f1a\u00ebc \u00f1ie\u00e5m cu\u00fba \u00f1\u00f2a ph\u00f6\u00f4ng nh\u00f6 da\u00e2n so\u00e1, s\u00f6\u00ef ke\u00e1t h\u00f4\u00efp da\u00e2n so\u00e1 va\u00f8 co\u00e2ng nghie\u00e4p, l\u00f6\u00f4ng, thu nha\u00e4p \u2026v.v. Cu\u00f5ng co\u00f9 the\u00e5 lie\u00e2n he\u00e4 chi tie\u00e2u cho s\u00f6\u00f9c kho\u00fbe, \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng xa\u00f9, gia\u00f9o du\u00efc \u2026v.v v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c ye\u00e1u to\u00e1 quye\u00e1t \u00f1\u00f2nh ca\u00f9c khoa\u00fbn chi tie\u00e2u na\u00f8y.

9.Kinh te\u00e1 xa\u00f5 ho\u00e4i: Gia\u00fbi th\u00edch ca\u00f9c sai bie\u00e4t ve\u00e0 to\u00e4i pha\u00efm, nghe\u00f8o \u00f1o\u00f9i, ty\u00fb le\u00e4 ly d\u00f2, qui mo\u00e2 gia
\u00f1\u00ecnh \u2026v.v gi\u00f6\u00f5a ca\u00f9c tha\u00f8nh pho\u00e1, th\u00f2 tra\u00e1n, va\u00f8 tie\u00e5u bang.
10. Ch\u00ednh tr\u00f2: Lie\u00e2n he\u00e4 \u00f1a\u00efi bie\u00e5u bo\u00fb phie\u00e1u v\u00f4\u00f9i mo\u00e4t so\u00e1 \u00f1a\u00ebc \u00f1ie\u00e5m cu\u00fba \u00f6\u00f9ng c\u00f6\u00fb vie\u00e2n \u2026v.v. gia\u00fbi
th\u00edch so\u00e1 phie\u00e1u mo\u00e4t nha\u00f8 ch\u00ednh tr\u00f2 thu \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc trong nh\u00f6\u00f5ng qua\u00e4n kha\u00f9c nhau.

Mo\u00e4t ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p tie\u00e1p ca\u00e4n he\u00e4 tho\u00e1ng \u00f1o\u00e1i v\u00f4\u00f9i va\u00e1n \u00f1e\u00e0 cho\u00efn mo\u00e4t \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i cu\u00ef the\u00e5 la\u00f8 s\u00f6\u00fb du\u00efng hie\u00e4u qua\u00fb he\u00e4 tho\u00e1ng pha\u00e2n loa\u00efi \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc ta\u00efp ch\u00ed Journal of Economic Literature (JEL \u2013 Ta\u00efp ch\u00ed Ly\u00f9 thuye\u00e1t Kinh te\u00e1) a\u00f9p du\u00efng, ta\u00efp ch\u00ed na\u00f8y \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc pha\u00f9t ha\u00f8nh ha\u00f8ng quy\u00f9 va\u00f8 tr\u00ecnh ba\u00f8y mo\u00e4t danh sa\u00f9ch pha\u00e2n loa\u00efi ca\u00f9c loa\u00efi sa\u00f9ch va\u00f8 ba\u00f8i ba\u00f9o \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc pha\u00f9t ha\u00f8nh trong ca\u00f9c quy\u00f9 tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c \u00f1o\u00f9 (xem Ba\u00fbng 14.1 \u00f1e\u00e5 co\u00f9 danh sa\u00f9ch na\u00f8y). Mo\u00e4t \u00f1\u00f3a CD cu\u00f5ng co\u00f9 ba\u00f9n ta\u00efi Hie\u00e4p ho\u00e4i Kinh te\u00e1 Hoa Ky\u00f8. V\u00ed du\u00ef, ba\u00efn quan ta\u00e2m \u00f1e\u00e1n vie\u00e4c nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u m\u00f6\u00f9c linh hoa\u00eft cu\u00fba lao \u00f1o\u00e4ng, tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c

1 Danh sa\u00f9ch na\u00f8y \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc tr\u00edch t\u00f6\u00f8 danh sa\u00f9ch cu\u00fba Carrol Foster
Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh Gia\u00fbng da\u00efy Kinh te\u00e1 Fulbright
Nie\u00e2n kho\u00f9a 2003-2004
Ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p pha\u00e2n t\u00edch
Ba\u00f8i \u00f1o\u00efc
Nha\u00e4p mo\u00e2n kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng
Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng 14: Th\u00f6\u00efc hie\u00e4n mo\u00e4t \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i th\u00f6\u00efc nghie\u00e4m
Ramu Ramanathan
Thu\u00efc \u00d1oan/Ha\u00f8o Thi

tie\u00e2n xem trong Ba\u00fbng 14.1 mu\u00efc \u201cKinh te\u00e1 Lao \u00f1o\u00e4ng va\u00f8 Da\u00e2n so\u00e1\u201d va\u00f8 l\u00f6u y\u00f9 ra\u00e8ng so\u00e1 pha\u00e2n loa\u00efi t\u00f6\u00f4ng \u00f6\u00f9ng la\u00f8 J6. Tie\u00e1p theo xem \u00f1e\u00e1n pha\u00e0n \u201cMu\u00efc lu\u00efc ca\u00f9c Ba\u00f8i ba\u00f9o trong ca\u00f9c ta\u00efp ch\u00ed hie\u00e4n nay\u201d, pha\u00e0n na\u00f8y lie\u00e4t ke\u00e2 danh sa\u00f9ch ca\u00f9c ba\u00f8i ba\u00f9o pha\u00f9t ha\u00f8nh ga\u00e0n \u00f1a\u00e2y pha\u00e2n tha\u00f8nh nhie\u00e0u loa\u00efi, sau \u00f1o\u00f9 ba\u00efn la\u00e4p mo\u00e4t danh sa\u00f9ch nh\u00f6\u00f5ng \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i ma\u00f8 ba\u00efn quan ta\u00e2m. Ta\u00efp ch\u00ed na\u00f8y cu\u00f5ng lie\u00e4t ke\u00e2 no\u00e4i dung cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c ta\u00efp ch\u00ed hie\u00e4n nay va\u00f8 to\u00f9m ta\u00e9t cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c cuo\u00e1n sa\u00f9ch, ca\u00f9c ta\u00efp ch\u00ed. Ca\u00f9c to\u00f9m ta\u00e9t na\u00f8y cu\u00f5ng se\u00f5 giu\u00f9p ba\u00efn bie\u00e1t the\u00e2m nhie\u00e0u ve\u00e0 nh\u00f6\u00f5ng \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i cu\u00ef the\u00e5, va\u00f8 giu\u00f9p ba\u00efn quye\u00e1t \u00f1\u00f2nh xem mo\u00e4t ba\u00f8i ba\u00f9o co\u00f9 qua\u00f9 thie\u00e2n ve\u00e0 ly\u00f9 thuye\u00e1t so v\u00f4\u00f9i ba\u00efn kho\u00e2ng.

Ca\u00f9c ta\u00efp ch\u00ed nh\u00f6 Applied Econpmics (Kinh te\u00e1 \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng), Applied Econometrics (Kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng), Review of Economics and Statistics (To\u00e5ng quan ve\u00e0 Kinh te\u00e1 va\u00f8 tho\u00e1ng ke\u00e2), International Monetary Fund Staff Papers (Ta\u00efp ch\u00ed da\u00f8nh da\u00f8nh cho nha\u00e2n vie\u00e2n quy\u00f5 tie\u00e0n te\u00e4 quo\u00e1c te\u00e1), va\u00f8 Brookings Paper on Economic Activity (Ca\u00f9c ba\u00f8i ba\u00f9o ve\u00e0 hoa\u00eft \u00f1o\u00e4ng kinh te\u00e1) la\u00f8 nh\u00f6\u00f5ng ta\u00efp ch\u00ed thie\u00e2n ve\u00e0 \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng va\u00f8 la\u00f8 \u00f1ie\u00e5m xua\u00e1t pha\u00f9t ra\u00e1t co\u00f9 \u00edch. Mo\u00e4t so\u00e1 ta\u00efp ch\u00ed chuye\u00e2n ve\u00e0 mo\u00e4t va\u00f8i l\u00f3nh v\u00f6\u00efc (v\u00ed du\u00ef nh\u00f6 Journal of Human Resources (Ta\u00efp ch\u00ed ve\u00e0 nha\u00e2n s\u00f6\u00ef), Journal of Urban Economics (Ta\u00efp ch\u00ed kinh te\u00e1 \u00f1o\u00e2 th\u00f2), Journal of Regional Science (Ta\u00efp ch\u00ed khoa ho\u00efc khu v\u00f6\u00efc)). Nh\u00f6\u00f5ng ta\u00efp ch\u00ed na\u00f8y co\u00f9 the\u00e5 giu\u00f9p chu\u00f9ng ta gi\u00f4\u00f9i ha\u00efn \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc va\u00e1n \u00f1e\u00e0 nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u. Ha\u00f5y cha\u00e9c cha\u00e9n la\u00f8 ba\u00efn ghi la\u00efi te\u00e2n va\u00f8 ca\u00f9c ta\u00f8i lie\u00e4u tham kha\u00fbo kha\u00f9c cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c sa\u00f9ch, ba\u00f9o co\u00f9 lie\u00e2n quan \u00f1e\u00e1n \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i ba\u00efn cho\u00efn. \u00d1o\u00efc l\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9t qua ca\u00f9c ba\u00f8i ba\u00f9o xem ba\u00efn co\u00f9 muo\u00e1n theo \u00f1uo\u00e5i ca\u00f9c \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i \u00f1o\u00f9 hay kho\u00e2ng. Ca\u00f9c th\u00f6 mu\u00efc tr\u00edch da\u00e3n trong nh\u00f6\u00f5ng ba\u00f8i ba\u00f9o na\u00f8y cu\u00f5ng \u00f1a\u00f9ng \u00f1e\u00e5 xem xe\u00f9t v\u00ec chu\u00f9ng co\u00f9 nhie\u00e0u ta\u00f8i lie\u00e4u tham kha\u00fbo kha\u00f9c lie\u00e2n quan \u00f1e\u00e1n cu\u00f8ng \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i. Danh sa\u00f9ch ma\u00f8 ba\u00efn co\u00f9 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc \u00f4\u00fb giai \u00f1oa\u00efn na\u00f8y se\u00f5 ra\u00e1t ca\u00e0n thie\u00e1t cho ca\u00f9c b\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c tie\u00e1p theo. Sau khi cho\u00efn \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc mo\u00e4t \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i, ha\u00f5y chua\u00e5n b\u00f2 pha\u00f9t bie\u00e5u \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i ma\u00f8 ba\u00efn d\u00f6\u00ef \u00f1\u00f2nh nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u.

Ba\u00fbng 14.1 Ta\u00efp ch\u00ed he\u00e4 tho\u00e1ng pha\u00e2n loa\u00efi ly\u00f9 thuye\u00e1t kinh te\u00e1
DANH SA\u00d9CH MA\u00d5 SO\u00c1 CA\u00d9C L\u00d3NH V\u00d6\u00cfC CH\u00cdNH
A Kinh te\u00e1 ho\u00efc to\u00e5ng qua\u00f9t va\u00f8 Da\u00efy ho\u00efc
A0 To\u00e5ng quan
A1 Kinh te\u00e1 ho\u00efc to\u00e5ng quan
A2 Da\u00efy kinh te\u00e1 ho\u00efc
B Ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p lua\u00e4n va\u00f8 l\u00f2ch s\u00f6\u00fb ca\u00f9c ho\u00efc
thuye\u00e1t kinh te\u00e1
B0 To\u00e5ng quan
B1 L\u00f2ch s\u00f6\u00fb ca\u00f9c ho\u00efc thuye\u00e1t kinh te\u00e1 tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c
B2 L\u00f2ch s\u00f6\u00fb ca\u00f9c ho\u00efc thuye\u00e1t kinh te\u00e1 sau

B3 L\u00f2ch s\u00f6\u00fb ca\u00f9c ho\u00efc thuye\u00e1t: Ca\u00f9 nha\u00e2n
B4 Ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p lua\u00e4n kinh te\u00e1

C Ca\u00f9c ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p toa\u00f9n ho\u00efc va\u00f8 \u00f1\u00f2nh
C0 To\u00e5ng quan
C1 Ca\u00f9c ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng va\u00f8
tho\u00e1ng ke\u00e2: To\u00e5ng quan
C2 Ca\u00f9c ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng:
Ca\u00f9c mo\u00e2 h\u00ecnh mo\u00e4t ph\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh
C3 Ca\u00f9c ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng:
Ca\u00f9c mo\u00e2 h\u00ecnh he\u00e4 ph\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh
C4 Ca\u00f9c ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng va\u00f8
tho\u00e1ng ke\u00e2: Ca\u00f9c \u00f1e\u00e0 ta\u00f8i \u00f1a\u00ebc bie\u00e4t
C5 La\u00e4p mo\u00e2 h\u00ecnh kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng
C6 Ca\u00f9c ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p toa\u00f9n ho\u00efc va\u00f8 la\u00e4p
C7 Ly\u00f9 thuye\u00e1t tro\u00f8 ch\u00f4i va\u00f8 Ly\u00f9 thuye\u00e1t
th\u00f6\u00f4ng l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng
C8 Thu tha\u00e4p d\u00f6\u00f5 lie\u00e4u va\u00f8 ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p
\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng; Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh ma\u00f9y t\u00ednh
C9 Thie\u00e1t ke\u00e1 th\u00ed nghie\u00e4m

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