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giáo trình kinh tế lượng Ch2

giáo trình kinh tế lượng Ch2

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Published by api-19852739

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Published by: api-19852739 on Nov 30, 2009
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03/18/2014

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Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh Gia\u00fbng da\u00efy Kinh te\u00e1 Fulbright
Nie\u00e2n kho\u00f9a 2003-2004
Ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p pha\u00e2n t\u00edch
Ba\u00f8i \u00f1o\u00efc
Nha\u00e4p mo\u00e2n kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng
Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng 2: O\u00c2n la\u00efi xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t va\u00f8 tho\u00e1ng ke\u00e2
Ramu Ramanathan
1
Thu\u00efc \u00d1oan/Ha\u00f8o Thi
CH\u00d6\u00d4NG 2
O\u00c2n La\u00efi Xa\u00f9c Sua\u00e1t va\u00f8 Tho\u00e1ng Ke\u00e2
Trong ch\u00f6\u00f4ng na\u00f8y, chu\u00f9ng ta to\u00f9m ta\u00e9t ca\u00f9c kha\u00f9i nie\u00e4m cu\u00fba xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t va\u00f8 tho\u00e1ng ke\u00e2 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc s\u00f6\u00fb du\u00efng

trong kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng. B\u00f4\u00fbi v\u00ec mo\u00e4t so\u00e1 kie\u00e1n th\u00f6\u00f9c tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c \u00f1a\u00e2y cu\u00fba xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t va\u00f8 tho\u00e1ng ke\u00e2 c\u00f4 ba\u00fbn \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc gia\u00fb s\u00f6\u00fb trong sa\u00f9ch na\u00f8y, vie\u00e4c o\u00e2n la\u00efi na\u00f8y \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc thie\u00e1t ke\u00e1 \u00f1e\u00e5 phu\u00efc vu\u00ef ch\u00e6 nh\u00f6 la\u00f8 mo\u00e4t s\u00f6\u00ef h\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9ng da\u00e3n la\u00efi ca\u00f9c chu\u00fb \u00f1e\u00e0 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc s\u00f6\u00fb du\u00efng trong ca\u00f9c ch\u00f6\u00f4ng sau na\u00f8y. \u00d1ie\u00e0u \u00f1o\u00f9 kho\u00e2ng co\u00f9 ngh\u00f3a la\u00f8 mo\u00e4t s\u00f6\u00ef nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u cha\u00ebt che\u00f5 va\u00f8 tro\u00efn ve\u00efn ve\u00e0 chu\u00fb \u00f1e\u00e0 na\u00f8y. V\u00ec ly\u00f9 do na\u00f8y, chu\u00f9ng ta tr\u00ecnh ba\u00f8y ra\u00e1t \u00edt ca\u00f9c ch\u00f6\u00f9ng minh. \u00d1e\u00e5 thay the\u00e1, chu\u00f9ng ta \u00f1\u00f2nh ngh\u00f3a ca\u00f9c kha\u00f9i nie\u00e4m quan tro\u00efng d\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9i tie\u00e2u \u00f1e\u00e0 \u201c\u00d1\u00f2nh ngh\u00f3a\u201d va\u00f8 to\u00f9m ta\u00e9t ca\u00f9c ke\u00e1t qua\u00fb h\u00f6\u00f5u du\u00efng d\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9i tie\u00e2u \u00f1e\u00e0 \u201cCa\u00f9c t\u00ednh cha\u00e1t.\u201d Muo\u00e1n co\u00f9 s\u00f6\u00ef tha\u00fbo lua\u00e4n chi tie\u00e1t cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c chu\u00fb \u00f1e\u00e0, ba\u00efn ne\u00e2n tham kha\u00fbo ca\u00f9c cuo\u00e1n sa\u00f9ch tuye\u00e4t ha\u00fbo \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc lie\u00e4t ke\u00e2 trong mu\u00efc lu\u00efc sa\u00f9ch tham kha\u00fbo \u00f4\u00fb cuo\u00e1i ch\u00f6\u00f4ng. Ca\u00f9c pha\u00e0n \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc \u00f1a\u00f9nh da\u00e1u hoa th\u00f2 (*) co\u00f9 t\u00ednh cha\u00e1t cao ca\u00e1p h\u00f4n va\u00f8 co\u00f9 the\u00e5 bo\u00fb qua ma\u00f8 kho\u00e2ng ma\u00e1t \u00f1i y\u00f9 ngh\u00f3a ch\u00ednh cu\u00fba no\u00e4i dung chu\u00fb \u00f1e\u00e0:

Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng na\u00f8y o\u00e2n la\u00efi ta\u00e1t ca\u00fb chu\u00fb \u00f1e\u00e0 co\u00f9 lie\u00e2n quan trong xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t va\u00f8 tho\u00e1ng ke\u00e2. Ne\u00e1u \u00f1a\u00f5 co\u00f9 lu\u00f9c do ba\u00efn \u00f1a\u00f5 ho\u00efc chu\u00fb \u00f1e\u00e0 na\u00f8y ro\u00e0i, ba\u00efn ne\u00e2n l\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9t nhanh qua ch\u00f6\u00f4ng na\u00f8y \u00f1e\u00e5 g\u00f4\u00efi nh\u00f4\u00f9 la\u00efi. Tuy nhie\u00e2n, ne\u00e1u ba\u00efn v\u00f6\u00f8a m\u00f4\u00f9i hoa\u00f8n tha\u00f8nh mo\u00e4t kho\u00f9a ho\u00efc ve\u00e0 ca\u00f9c ta\u00f8i lie\u00e4u na\u00f8y, chu\u00f9ng to\u00e2i \u00f1e\u00e0 ngh\u00f2 ba\u00efn \u00f1o\u00efc Pha\u00e0n 2.1 \u00f1e\u00e1n 2.5 (\u00f1a\u00ebc bie\u00e4t chu\u00f9 tro\u00efng ve\u00e0 \u00f1o\u00e0ng ph\u00f6\u00f4ng sai va\u00f8 s\u00f6\u00ef t\u00f6\u00f4ng quan \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc tha\u00fbo lua\u00e4n trong Pha\u00e0n 2.3) va\u00f8 tie\u00e1p \u00f1e\u00e1n \u00f1i va\u00f8o tr\u00f6\u00efc tie\u00e1p Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng 3 h\u00f4n la\u00f8 \u00f1o\u00efc pha\u00e0n co\u00f8n la\u00efi cu\u00fba ch\u00f6\u00f4ng na\u00f8y. Ba\u00efn co\u00f9 the\u00e5 quay la\u00efi \u00f1e\u00e5 o\u00e2n nh\u00f6\u00f5ng pha\u00e0n co\u00f9 lie\u00e2n quan cu\u00fba ch\u00f6\u00f4ng na\u00f8y khi ca\u00e0n. Ca\u00f9c pha\u00e0n trong Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng 2 song song v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c pha\u00e0n trong Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng 3, va\u00f8 s\u00f6\u00ef tham kha\u00fbo che\u00f9o na\u00f8y \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc ch\u00e6 \u00f1\u00f2nh nha\u00e8m giu\u00f9p cho mo\u00e4t s\u00f6\u00ef hoa\u00f9n \u00f1o\u00e5i suo\u00e2n se\u00fb gi\u00f6\u00f5a ca\u00f9c pha\u00e0n co\u00f9 the\u00e5 th\u00f6\u00efc hie\u00e4n \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc. \u00d1ie\u00e0u na\u00f8y cho phe\u00f9p ba\u00efn hie\u00e5u ly\u00f9 thuye\u00e1t kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng c\u00f4 ba\u00fbn to\u00e1t h\u00f4n va\u00f8 \u00f1a\u00f9nh gia\u00f9 \u00f1u\u00f9ng s\u00f6\u00ef h\u00f6\u00f5u \u00edch cu\u00fba xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t va\u00f8 tho\u00e1ng ke\u00e2 mo\u00e4t ca\u00f9ch de\u00e3 da\u00f8ng h\u00f4n.

\ue0002.1 Ca\u00f9c Bie\u00e1n Nga\u00e3u Nhie\u00e2n va\u00f8 ca\u00f9c Pha\u00e2n Pho\u00e1i Xa\u00f9c Sua\u00e1t

Mo\u00e4t ca\u00f9ch \u00f1ie\u00e5n h\u00ecnh, mo\u00e4t nha\u00f8 nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u th\u00f6\u00efc hie\u00e4n mo\u00e4t th\u00ed nghie\u00e4m co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f1\u00f4n gia\u00fbn nh\u00f6 tung \u00f1o\u00e0ng xu hay quay ca\u00ebp su\u00f9c sa\u00e9c hoa\u00ebc co\u00f9 the\u00e5 ph\u00f6\u00f9c ta\u00efp nh\u00f6 la\u00f8m mo\u00e4t kha\u00fbo sa\u00f9t ca\u00f9c ta\u00f9c nha\u00e2n kinh te\u00e1 hay th\u00f6\u00efc hie\u00e4n mo\u00e4t ch\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh \u00f1ie\u00e0u tr\u00f2 y ho\u00efc th\u00f6\u00efc nghie\u00e4m. D\u00f6\u00efa tre\u00e2n ke\u00e1t qua\u00fb cu\u00fba th\u00ed nghie\u00e4m, mo\u00e4t nha\u00f8 pha\u00e2n t\u00edch co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f1o \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc ca\u00f9c gia\u00f9 tr\u00f2 cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c bie\u00e1n quan ta\u00e2m ma\u00f8 chu\u00f9ng mo\u00e2 ta\u00fb \u00f1a\u00ebc \u00f1ie\u00e5m cu\u00fba ke\u00e1t qua\u00fb. Ca\u00f9c bie\u00e1n nh\u00f6 va\u00e4y \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc bie\u00e1t \u00f1e\u00e1n nh\u00f6 bie\u00e1n nga\u00e3u

nhie\u00e2n va\u00f8 th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng ky\u00f9 hie\u00e4u la\u00f8 X. Ca\u00f9c v\u00ed du\u00ef bao go\u00e0m nhie\u00e4t \u00f1o\u00e4 ta\u00efi mo\u00e4t th\u00f4\u00f8i \u00f1ie\u00e5m na\u00f8o \u00f1o\u00f9, so\u00e1

cuo\u00e4c go\u00efi \u00f1e\u00e1n qua mo\u00e4t to\u00e5ng \u00f1a\u00f8i \u00f1ie\u00e4n thoa\u00efi trong mo\u00e4t khoa\u00fbng 5 phu\u00f9t, thu nha\u00e4p cu\u00fba mo\u00e4t ho\u00e4 gia \u00f1\u00ecnh, to\u00e0n kho cu\u00fba mo\u00e4t co\u00e2ng ty, va\u00f8 gia\u00f9 ba\u00f9n cu\u00fba mo\u00e4t ca\u00ean nha\u00f8 cu\u00f5ng nh\u00f6 ca\u00f9c \u00f1a\u00ebc \u00f1ie\u00e5m cu\u00fba no\u00f9, nh\u00f6 die\u00e4n t\u00edch sinh hoa\u00eft hay k\u00edch th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c lo\u00e2 \u00f1a\u00e1t. Mo\u00e4t bie\u00e1n nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n la\u00f8 r\u00f4\u00f8i ra\u00efc ne\u00e1u

Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh Gia\u00fbng da\u00efy Kinh te\u00e1 Fulbright
Nie\u00e2n kho\u00f9a 2003-2004
Ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p pha\u00e2n t\u00edch
Ba\u00f8i \u00f1o\u00efc
Nha\u00e4p mo\u00e2n kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng
Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng 2: O\u00c2n la\u00efi xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t va\u00f8 tho\u00e1ng ke\u00e2
Ramu Ramanathan
2
Thu\u00efc \u00d1oan/Ha\u00f8o Thi

no\u00f9 ch\u00e6 mang ca\u00f9c gia\u00f9 tr\u00f2 l\u00f6\u00efa cho\u00efn. So\u00e1 \u00f1e\u00f8n \u00f1ie\u00e4n t\u00f6\u00fb TV theo lo\u00e2 20 va\u00f8 so\u00e1 ma\u00ebt ng\u00f6\u00fba trong 10 la\u00e0n tung mo\u00e4t \u00f1o\u00e0ng xu la\u00f8 ca\u00f9c v\u00ed du\u00ef cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c bie\u00e1n nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n r\u00f4\u00f8i ra\u00efc. Mo\u00e4t bie\u00e1n nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n la\u00f8 lie\u00e2n tu\u00efc ne\u00e1u no\u00f9 co\u00f9 the\u00e5 mang ba\u00e1t ky\u00f8 gia\u00f9 tr\u00f2 na\u00f8o trong mo\u00e4t khoa\u00fbng so\u00e1 th\u00f6\u00efc. Khi \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc \u00f1o l\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng ch\u00ednh xa\u00f9c, chie\u00e0u cao cu\u00fba mo\u00e4t ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i, nhie\u00e4t \u00f1o\u00e4 ta\u00efi mo\u00e4t lu\u00f9c rie\u00e2ng bie\u00e4t na\u00f8o \u00f1o\u00f9, va\u00f8 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng na\u00eang l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng tie\u00e2u thu\u00ef trong mo\u00e4t gi\u00f4\u00f8 la\u00f8 ca\u00f9c v\u00ed du\u00ef cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c bie\u00e1n nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n lie\u00e2n tu\u00efc. Quy \u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c s\u00f6\u00fb du\u00efng trong sa\u00f9ch na\u00f8y la\u00f8 ky\u00f9 hie\u00e4u mo\u00e4t bie\u00e1n nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n ba\u00e8ng ma\u00e3u t\u00f6\u00ef hoa (nh\u00f6 X hay Y) va\u00f8 ca\u00f9c ke\u00e1t qua\u00fb cu\u00ef the\u00e5 cu\u00fba no\u00f9 b\u00f4\u00fbi ma\u00e3u t\u00f6\u00ef th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng (nh\u00f6 x hay y).

\u00d1e\u00e5 gi\u00f6\u00f5 cho s\u00f6\u00ef tr\u00ecnh ba\u00f8y \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc \u00f1\u00f4n gia\u00fbn, ta minh ho\u00efa ca\u00f9c kha\u00f9i nie\u00e4m kha\u00f9c nhau s\u00f6\u00fb du\u00efng ha\u00e0u he\u00e1t ca\u00f9c bie\u00e1n nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n r\u00f4\u00f8i ra\u00efc. Ca\u00f9c me\u00e4nh \u00f1e\u00e0 de\u00e3 da\u00f8ng m\u00f4\u00fb ro\u00e4ng t\u00f4\u00f9i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng h\u00f4\u00efp cu\u00fba bie\u00e1n nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n lie\u00e2n tu\u00efc.

Lie\u00e2n ke\u00e1t v\u00f4\u00f9i mo\u00e3i bie\u00e1n nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n la\u00f8 mo\u00e4t pha\u00e2n pho\u00e1i xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t [ky\u00f9 hie\u00e4u b\u00f4\u00fbi ha\u00f8m f(x)] no\u00f9 xa\u00f9c \u00f1\u00f2nh xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t ma\u00f8 bie\u00e1n nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n se\u00f5 mang ca\u00f9c gia\u00f9 tr\u00f2 trong ca\u00f9c khoa\u00fbng xa\u00f9c \u00f1\u00f2nh cu\u00ef the\u00e5. \u00d1\u00f2nh ngh\u00f3a ch\u00ednh th\u00f6\u00f9c cu\u00fba mo\u00e4t bie\u00e1n nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n kho\u00e2ng \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc tr\u00ecnh ba\u00f8y \u00f4\u00fb \u00f1a\u00e2y nh\u00f6ng co\u00f9 the\u00e5 t\u00ecm tha\u00e1y trong mo\u00efi cuo\u00e1n sa\u00f9ch lie\u00e4t ke\u00e2 trong mu\u00efc lu\u00efc sa\u00f9ch tham kha\u00fbo.

Trong cuo\u00e1n sa\u00f9ch na\u00f8y ta ch\u00e6 tha\u00fbo lua\u00e4n nh\u00f6\u00f5ng pha\u00e2n pho\u00e1i co\u00f9 s\u00f6\u00fb du\u00efng tr\u00f6\u00efc tie\u00e1p trong kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng. Ramanathan (1993) co\u00f9 nhie\u00e0u v\u00ed du\u00ef cu\u00fba ca\u00fb ca\u00f9c pha\u00e2n pho\u00e1i lie\u00e2n tu\u00efc va\u00f8 r\u00f4\u00f8i ra\u00efc kho\u00e2ng \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc tr\u00ecnh ba\u00f8y \u00f4\u00fb \u00f1a\u00e2y.

\ue000 V\u00cd DU\u00cf 2.1

Nh\u00f6 la\u00f8 mo\u00e4t minh ho\u00efa, Cu\u00efc Thue\u00e1 No\u00e4i Bo\u00e4 My\u00f5 co\u00f9 tho\u00e2ng tin ve\u00e0 to\u00e5ng thu nha\u00e4p co\u00f9 hie\u00e4u ch\u00e6nh t\u00f6\u00f8 ta\u00e1t ca\u00fb tie\u00e0n thu thue\u00e1 thu nha\u00e4p ca\u00f9 nha\u00e2n (ke\u00e5 ca\u00fb t\u00ednh tra\u00fb chung) cho toa\u00f8n n\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c My\u00f5. Gia\u00fb s\u00f6\u00fb ta thie\u00e1t la\u00e4p ca\u00f9c khoa\u00fbng thu nha\u00e4p 1 \u2013 10.000, 10.000 \u2013 20.000, 20.000 \u2013 30.000, v.v\u2026 va\u00f8 t\u00ednh toa\u00f9n ty\u00fb le\u00e4 tie\u00e0n thu thue\u00e1 thuo\u00e4c va\u00f8o mo\u00e3i nho\u00f9m thu nha\u00e4p. \u00d1ie\u00e0u na\u00f8y ta\u00efo ra mo\u00e4tpha\u00e2n

pho\u00e1i ta\u00e0n sua\u00e1t. Ty\u00fb le\u00e4 tie\u00e0n thu thuo\u00e4c va\u00f8o nho\u00f9m thu nha\u00e4p 40.000 \u2013 50.000 co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc xem
la\u00f8 xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t ma\u00f8 mo\u00e4t khoa\u00fbn thu thue\u00e1 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc ru\u00f9t nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n se\u00f5 co\u00f9 thu nha\u00e4p thuo\u00e4c va\u00f8o khoa\u00fbng
\u00f1o\u00f9.

Trong H\u00ecnh 2.1 ty\u00fb le\u00e4 cu\u00fba tie\u00e0n thu thue\u00e1 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc ve\u00f5 \u00f1o\u00e0 th\u00f2 d\u00f6\u00efa va\u00f8o ca\u00f9c trung \u00f1ie\u00e5m cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c khoa\u00fbng d\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9i da\u00efng bie\u00e5u \u00f1o\u00e0 thanh (\u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc bie\u00e1t la\u00f8 bie\u00e5u \u00f1o\u00e0 ta\u00e0n sua\u00e1t) trong \u00f1o\u00f9 die\u00e4n t\u00edch cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c h\u00ecnh ch\u00f6\u00f5 nha\u00e4t ba\u00e8ng v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c ty\u00fb le\u00e4 t\u00f6\u00f4ng \u00f6\u00f9ng. Ne\u00e1u k\u00edch th\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c ma\u00e3u la\u00f8 \u00f1u\u00fb l\u00f4\u00f9n va\u00f8 ca\u00f9c khoa\u00fbng \u00f1u\u00fb nho\u00fb, ta co\u00f9 the\u00e5 la\u00f8m ga\u00e0n \u00f1u\u00f9ng ca\u00f9c ta\u00e0n sua\u00e1t v\u00f4\u00f9i mo\u00e4t \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng cong tr\u00f4n (nh\u00f6 tr\u00ecnh ba\u00f8y trong bie\u00e5u \u00f1o\u00e0), \u00f1o\u00f9 la\u00f8 pha\u00e2n pho\u00e1i xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t cu\u00fba thu nha\u00e4p.

\ue000 V\u00cd DU\u00cf 2.2

\u00d1ie\u00e5m trung b\u00ecnh (GPA) cu\u00fba mo\u00e4t sinh vie\u00e2n thay \u00f1o\u00e5i t\u00f6\u00f8 0 \u00f1e\u00e1n 4. Ba\u00fbng 2.1 co\u00f9 mo\u00e4t v\u00ed du\u00ef cu\u00fba pha\u00e2n pho\u00e1i xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t cu\u00fba GPA. H\u00ecnh 2.2 la\u00f8 mo\u00e4t s\u00f6\u00ef tr\u00ecnh ba\u00f8y ba\u00e8ng h\u00ecnh ve\u00f5 cu\u00fba pha\u00e2n pho\u00e1i xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t. Xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t ma\u00f8 mo\u00e4t sinh vie\u00e2n \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc cho\u00efn nga\u00e3u nhie\u00e2n co\u00f9 GPA \u00f4\u00fb gi\u00f6\u00f5a 2 va\u00f8 2,5 la\u00f8 0,244. S\u00f6\u00ef die\u00e3n gia\u00fbi cu\u00fba ca\u00f9c con so\u00e1 kha\u00f9c la\u00f8 t\u00f6\u00f4ng t\u00f6\u00ef.

\ue000Ba\u00fbng 2.1 Pha\u00e2n Pho\u00e1i Xa\u00f9c Sua\u00e1t Cu\u00fba \u00d1ie\u00e5m Trung B\u00ecnh (GPA)
Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh Gia\u00fbng da\u00efy Kinh te\u00e1 Fulbright
Nie\u00e2n kho\u00f9a 2003-2004
Ph\u00f6\u00f4ng pha\u00f9p pha\u00e2n t\u00edch
Ba\u00f8i \u00f1o\u00efc
Nha\u00e4p mo\u00e2n kinh te\u00e1 l\u00f6\u00f4\u00efng v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng
Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng 2: O\u00c2n la\u00efi xa\u00f9c sua\u00e1t va\u00f8 tho\u00e1ng ke\u00e2
Ramu Ramanathan
3
Thu\u00efc \u00d1oan/Ha\u00f8o Thi
Khoa\u00fbng
0 \u2013 0,5 0,5 \u2013 1,0 1,0 \u2013 1,5 1,5 \u2013 2,0 2,0 \u2013 2,5 2,5 \u2013 3,0 3,0 \u2013 3,5 3,5 \u2013 4,0
x
0,25
0,75
1,25
1,75
2,25
2,75
3,25
3,75
f(x)
0
0,002
0,010
0,049
0,244
0,342
0,255
0,098
\ue000H\u00ecnh 2.1 Bie\u00e5u \u00d1o\u00e0 Ta\u00e0n Sua\u00e1t \u00d1o\u00e1i V\u00f4\u00f9i Thu Nha\u00e4p Ha\u00f8ng Na\u00eam
\ue000H\u00ecnh 2.2 Pha\u00e2n Pho\u00e1i Xa\u00f9c Sua\u00e1t Cu\u00fba \u00d1ie\u00e5m Trung B\u00ecnh (GPA)
5 15
25 35 45 55

Thu nha\u00e4p
theo nga\u00f8n
\u00f1o\u00e2 la

Ty\u00fb le\u00e4
tie\u00e0n thu thue\u00e1
0,25 0,75 1,25 1,75
2,25 2,75 3,25 3,75
X
f(x)
0,342

0,300 0,200 0,100

f(x)
\ue000H\u00ecnh 2.3 \u00d1o\u00e0
Th\u00f2 Ma\u00e4t \u00d1o\u00e4 Chua\u00e5n
Chua\u00e5n Ho\u00f9a

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