Eukaryotes have clamp loader complex, similar to β subunit of pol of prokaryotes, and a six-unitclamp called the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The RNA primers are removed duringOkazaki fragment completion by mechanisms similar to those in Prokaryotes. In eukaryotes,RNase enzymes remove the RNA primers in okazaki fragments; a repair polymerase fills gapsand a DNA ligase forms the final seal.Helicases, topoisomerase and single strand binding proteins play roles similar to that in prokaryotes. All the enzymatic processes are generally the same in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.DNA replication developed in prokaryotes, and was refined as prokaryotes evolved intoeukaryotes. The completion of the replication of linear eukaryotic chromosome involves theformation of specialized structures at the tips of chromosomes.Termination of replication in eukaryotes is different from that of prokaryotes. Eukaryotes havelinear chromosome, and once the first primer is removed from the strand, there is no known wayto fill in the gap, since DNA cannot be extended in the 3' -5 ' direction and there is no 3 ' endupstream as there would be in a circle. If this were actually the situation, the DNA strands wouldget shorter every time they replicated and genes would be lost forever To avoid this condition, the cell has devised a system. The ends of chromosomes do not havegenes and instead, they are composed of many repeats of short, GC rich sequences. The exactsequence of the repeat in a telomere is species-specific.These repeats are added to the 3' end of DNA, not by Semiconservative replication, but by anenzyme called telomerase. This enzyme has small RNA of 159-200 bp length which act astemplate. The telomerase adds many repeated copies of its characteristic sequence to the 3' endsof chromosomePriming for synthesis of the opposite strand can then occur within these telomeres. Interestingly,somatic cells lack telomerase while the germ cell retains the enzyme. Clearly, a picture of the"replication apparatus" of eukaryotic organisms is beginning to emerge, but still there are manythings which need to be explored
: It is now clear that eukaryotic cells have mnor ethan a dozen DNA polymerases.Two of these (α and
) are important for the replication of eukaryotic chromosomes. The rate of synthesis of DNA in eukaryotic cells is only 50 nt/s - about one tenth the rate of bacterial DNAsynthesis.