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Avian Journal Summaries

Avian Journal Summaries

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Published by vetpathforum
Avian Growth and metabolic characterization of Macrorhabdus ornithogaster. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:256–265 (2007). Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (M. ornithogaster) is an anamorphic ascomycetous yeast found only in the stomach of birds. Infection is often benign but has also been associated with disease in some species of birds under some circumstances. has been associated with a chronic wasting disease in budgerigars, canaries, and finches and an acute hemorrhagic gastritis in budgerigars and parro
Avian Growth and metabolic characterization of Macrorhabdus ornithogaster. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:256–265 (2007). Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (M. ornithogaster) is an anamorphic ascomycetous yeast found only in the stomach of birds. Infection is often benign but has also been associated with disease in some species of birds under some circumstances. has been associated with a chronic wasting disease in budgerigars, canaries, and finches and an acute hemorrhagic gastritis in budgerigars and parro

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Avian
Growth and metabolic characterization of Macrorhabdusornithogaster. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:256–265 (2007).
Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (M. ornithogaster) is an anamorphicascomycetous yeast found only in the stomach of birds. Infection isoften benign but has also been associated with disease in somespecies of birds under some circumstances. has been associated withachronic wasting diseasein budgerigars, canaries, and finches and anacute hemorrhagic gastritis in budgerigars and parrotlets. A stuntingsyndrome was noted in chickens naturally infected with M.ornithogaster, but these birds were also affected by a number of otherpathogens.
Toxinotypes of Clostridium perfringens isolated from sick andhealthy avian species
. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:329–333 (2007). All C.perfringens isolates were classified astype Aregardless of species ordisease history. Although many isolates (from all avian groups) had thegene encoding the C. perfirngens beta2 toxin, only 54% produced thetoxin in vitro when measured using Western blot analysis. Surprisingly,a large number of healthy birds (90%) carried CPB2-producing isolates,whereas over half of the cpb2-positive isolates from diseased birdsfailed to produce CPB2. These data from this investigation do notsuggest a causal relationship between beta2 toxin and necroticenteritis in birds.
Application of polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting todifferentiate Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale isolates.
J VetDiagn Invest 19:417–420 (2007).Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale(ORT)is an infectious respiratory pathogen of chickens, turkeys, andwild birds. The disease caused by ORT is characterized bytracheitis,airsacculitis, and fibrinous pneumoniain severely affected birds.S
arcocystis sp.-associated meningoencephalitisin a bald eagle(Haliaeetus leucocephalus).
J Vet Diagn Invest 19:564–568 (2007).Protozoal meningoencephalitis -The predominant histologic lesion waslymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic meningoencephalitisinvolving thecerebrum and cerebellum. There was a marked segmentalloss of granular cells and Purkinje cells, as well as segmental atrophy of themolecular layer in the cerebellum. Protozoal merozoites and schizontswere observed in the gray matter of the cerebellum. Ultrastructurally,the merozoites were classified as a species of Sarcocystis due to thelack of rhoptries. Immunohistochemistry of the agent revealed apositive reaction forSarcocystis neurona, while sections were negativefor Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.
 
Respiratory herpesvirus infection in two Indian Ringneck parakeets. J Vet DiagnInvest 20:235–238 (2008).
Diffuse consolidation and red discoloration of the lungs, aswell as thickened, congested air sacs. multifocal,necrotizing bronchitis, parabronchitis,andinterstitial pneumonia. largesyncytial cellswith up to 15 nuclei. The nuclei of these syncytial cells often contained large,eosinophilic inclusion bodies, consistent withherpesvirus. Recently, anovel Psittacid herpesvirusstrain was isolated from themucosal papillomasof neotropical parrots and fromcloacal and cutaneous papillomasof  African grey parrots. However, there have been reports of a different herpesvirus of  parakeets that has tropism for the lower respiratory tract, with no hepatic or significantupper-respiratory-tract involvement. One was from the United States, in a Bourke’s parakeet, and the other was from Japan. This virus is referred to as ‘‘respiratoryherpesvirus of parakeets’’ and represents an unusual manifestation of herpesvirus-induced disease in parakeets. In these 2 parakeets, the herpes-like inclusion bodies wereidentified within epithelial cellsand syncytial cells of the trachea, bronchi, parabronchi,air capillaries, and air sacs.Herpesvirus subfamilies include alpha-herpesviruses, beta-herpesviruses, and gamma-herpesviruses. Alpha-herpesviruses are associated with rapidviral replication, host cell lysis, and the ability to establish latent infection.5 An exampleof avian alpha-herpesvirus is Gallid herpesvirus 1 (family Herpesviridae, subfamilyAlphaherpesvirinae, genus Iltovirus), commonly known as Infectious laryngotracheitisvirus (ILTV) of chickens, which causes upper-respiratorytract infection manifested asnecrotizing pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, and, occasionally, mild pneumonia.23. InPsittaciformes, there are several recognized diseases associated with avian alpha-herpesviruses. Infection withPsittacid herpesvirus 1 (PsHV-1), formerly known asPacheco’s disease (PD), is characterized by massive hepatic necrosis with formation of syncytial cells.18 Amazon tracheitis virus (ATV) is a cause of upper-respiratory-tractlesions similar to ILTV in chickens.18 There are several other herpesviruses associatedwith more chronic, non–lifethreatening skin and/or mucosal lesions. It is speculated thatthe feather abnormalities referred to as ‘‘feather dusters’’ in European Budgerigars arecaused by a herpesvirus.
Hepatic hemorrhage, hemocoelom, and sudden death due toHaemoproteusinfection in passerine birds: eleven cases. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:304–313 (2008).
A promiscuous genotype of Haemoproteus capable of undergoing host switching on afamilial level was identified. This protozoan caused severe disease with high mortality in6 species of exotic passerine birds housed in California at the San Diego Zoo. Necropsyfindings consisted of hemocoelom and irregularly scattered areas of hemorrhage andhepatocellular necrosis. Affected areas of liver contained solitary protozoalmegaloschizontsin varied states of degeneration and peripheral nonsuppurativeinflammation. No other parasite life stages were found in parenchymal organs or bloodsmears.
Interaction of ionophore and vitamin E in knockdown syndrome of turkeys. J VetDiagn Invest 20:472–476 (2008).
Turkeys withknockdown syndromehadmyopathyof  skeletal muscles, but no lesions in the myocardium. Generally, concentration of monensinin serum was highest in turkeys diagnosed with knockdown syndrome given more than90 mg/kg of monensin in the diet. Vitamin E concentrations in the livers were
 
statistically higher in healthy turkeys fed a diet free of monensin than in the livers of  birds from the 3 groups exposed to monensin. This suggests that the concentrationof monensin in serum positively correlates to the severity of clinical signs and pathologyand to the amount of monensin in the feed. The current study also suggeststhat monensinin the feed could induce lower concentrations of vitamin E in the liver of turkeys and can predispose the turkeys to knockdown syndrome.
Diffuse intestinalT-cell lymphosarcomain a yellow-naped Amazon parrot(Amazona ochrocephala auropalliata). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:656–660 (2008).
Lymphosarcoma (LSA) is themost commonlyreported lymphoid neoplasm in parrots.
Pathology of Natural Infections byH5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virusin Mute(Cygnus olor) and Whooper (Cygnus cygnus) Swans.
 Vet Pathol 44:137–143(2007). multifocalhemorrhagic necrosis in the pancreas, pulmonary congestion andedema, and subepicardial hemorrhages. Major histologic lesions were acute pancreaticnecrosis, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis, andlymphoplasmacytic encephalitis withneuronal necrosis. Adrenals displayed consistently scattered cortical and medullarynecrosis. In spleen and Peyer’s patches, mild lymphocyte necrosis was present. In the brain, a large number of neurons and glial cells, especially Purkinje cells, showedimmunostaining.
Pathology and Virus Tissue Distribution of Turkey Origin ReovirusesinExperimentally Infected Turkey Poults.
Vet Pathol 44:185–195 (2007). bursalatrophy characterized by lymphoid depletion and increased fibroplasiabetween the bursalfollicles. Both IHC and ISH revealed viral antigen andRNA in the surface epithelialcellsof the bursa, in macrophages in the interstitium of the bursa and, to lesser degree, insplenic red pulp macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells. The lymphoid depletionobserved in the bursa appears to be the effect of anindirectly induced apoptosis andwould most likely result in immune dysfunction in poults infected with TRV.
Pathologic Findings of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza VirusA/Duck/Vietnam/12/05 (H5N1) in Experimentally Infected Pekin Ducks, Based onImmunohistochemistry and In Situ Hybridization
. Vet Pathol 44:635–642 (2007).Clinical signs -conjunctivitis and slight depression, severe neurologic signs consisting of torticollis, incoordination, tremors, and seizures. Gross lesions- hemorrhages in theduodenum, ceca, proventriculus, ventriculus, trachea,
pancreas, and brain
. Histologiclesions, as well as immunohistochemistry positivity, were recorded in the
pancreas andbrain.
Fatal Coxiellosisin Swainson's Blue Mountain Rainbow Lorikeets Vet Path 2008 Mar:
Clinical
 
signs= head pressing, hemiparesis,
 
seizures, obtunded mentation. Grossly= hepatomegaly, splenomegaly; Histo=disseminated microgranulomas
 
in the liver, spleen, and brain, andlymphohistocytic perivascular encephalitis and cephalic vasculitis. Bacteria were Gimenez and PAS positive.
Feather-picking Psittacines: Histopathology and Species Trends Vet Path 2008 May
: Inflammatoryskin disease was diagnosed in 210 birds, and traumatic skin disease was diagnosed in 198 birds. Theinflammatory cells associated with the lesions were typically lymphocytes and occasionally plasma

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