Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
54Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Physical Properties & Mechanical Properties of dental material

Physical Properties & Mechanical Properties of dental material

Ratings:

1.5

(1)
|Views: 6,403|Likes:
Published by ramly98

More info:

Published by: ramly98 on Dec 01, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/22/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Physical properties:
Mass properties
 DensitySpecific Gravity
Mass
per unit volume (gm/cm
3
),
Construct
an upper denture from a low density material, and a lower denture from a higher density material (toenhance the stability ocom pletedentues). 
Ratio
of the mass of a particular body to the mass of an equalvolume of water at the same temperature (Units: none),
Since
the density of water is 1 q/cm
3
, density and specific gravitymay be numerically equal, although they are not the same.
Thermal PropertiesAdhesion
Thermal ExpansionSpecific HeatDefinitionAdhesion Types
Linear
coefficient of thermal expansion:(change in length per unit length of thematerial for 1°C change in temperature),
Rate
at which a material expands uponheating or contracts upon cooling isdependent upon the coefficient of thermalexpansion,
 
Absolute
coefficients of thermal expansion of materials are of small importance for clinical practice; their relative values, however, are extremelyimportant,
For restorative material
s thecoefficient of thermal expansion should bethe same or close to the tooth structure,(
For
example, when hot or cold beveragesare taken, there is expansion of both thetooth structure and restorative materials,
If 
they do not contract or expand at the sametime, the difference results in cracks between the restoration and toothstructure,
This
results in failure of therestoration).
Quantity
of heatneeded to raisethe temperatureof one gram of the substance1°C,
Units
arecal.gm
-1
. °C
-1
,
Symbol
used isC
 p
,
How
rapidlythe temperatureincreasesdepends uponthe specific heatof the material.
The
force that binds twodissimilar materialstogether when they are brought into intimatecontact by the attractionof atoms or molecules atsurfaces (
cohesion
is theattraction between atomsor molecules within onesubstance),
Anintermediate layer
,called an
adhesive
, has to be placed between 2materials,
Surfaces
or 
substrates
that areadhered to, are termedthe
Adherend
.
Mechanical
adhesionis through theroughness andirregularities of theadherend's surface,
Chemical
adhesiontheory, which includesall kinds of chemical bonds between theadhesive and theadherend, including primary (ionic andcovalent bonding) andsecondary valenceforces (hydrogen,dipole interaction, andVander Waals forces),
Combination
of bothtypes of adhesion.
Thermal ConductivityThermal DiffusivityAdhesion Principals
Rate
of transfer of heat(calories or joules) byconduction, through a unitthickness (1 cm), across aunit area (1 cm/). Per unittime (1 sec), for a unitdifference of temperature(1°C),
Thermal
insulation base is usedunder a large metallicrestoration (e.g. amalgam)to protect the pulp fromtemperature changes,
Law:
{Q=KA((θ
1
2
)/d)}where (
=Constant,termed material thermalconductivity,
d
=material bar length,
A
=crosssectional area,
θ
1
2
=difference between2 ends temp,
Q
=heatquantity passing per second),
Units
: watts per meter per degree Kelvin.
Transfer
of heat from a hot to acold source is dependent on boththe thermal conductivity(regulating the rate at which theheat enters and passes through thematerial) and the specific heat(determining the rate at which thetemperature will rise as heatenters the material),
This
is presented by the thermaldiffusivity, D, such that D=K/(Cpρ) where (
=thermalconductivity,
C
p
=heat capacity,
ρ
=material density),
 
The
thermaldiffusivity gives a clear indication of the rate of rise of temperature at one point due toheat source of another point, andmay be considered the mostrelevant in dental application,
In
many circumstances a low valueof diffusivity is preferred,
Adenture base material
, ideally,should have a high value of thermal diffusivity in order thatthe patient retains
Surface EnergySurface Tension
The
free energy at thesurface of a liquid or solid isgreater than in its interior,{
In
the interior of the liquid(or solid), atom A issurrounded by its normalcomplement of 'near neighbours',
In contrast,
atom B at the surface is only bonded to a few other atoms,
Thus
, there is a greattendency for atom B tosatisfy its bondingrequirements (high surfaceenergy) by bonding withother substances more toitself}
.Since
the liquidsurface atoms arenot attractedequally in alldirections, astronger attractionresults between thesurface atomsthemselves,causing tightnessof atoms at thesurface, much likea tough skin,
The
force tending to produce this skineffect is called
surface tension
.
Wetting 
 
Describes
the liquid's tendency to spread out over the solid surface, (↑ solid surface energy + ↓ liquidsurface tension = ↑ wetting),
In order
to produceadhesions, the liquid film must flow easily over theentire surface and adhere to the solid. In other words, complete (or total) wetting must occur,
Mechanical Prop erties:
Stress Strain Relations (Stress Strain Curves p.40)
StressStrainStress strain Curves
Stress
is the internal resistanceof the body in terms of force per unit area,
Types:
(
Tension
{
A
 body is subjected to two sets of forces that are directed awayfrom each other in the samestraight line},
Compression
{
A
 body is subjected to two sets of forces in the same straight lineand directed towards each other},
Shear
{
Result
of two sets of forces directed parallel to eachother}).
Change
in length per unit length of the body when it is subjected to astress,
Deformation
resulting from atensile or pulling force is anelongation of a body in the directionof applied force, whereas acompressive or pushing force causescompression or shortening of the body,
Strain
(E)=Deformation/originallength=(L-L
o
)/ L
o
=∆L/L
It is
preferential to report thestress-strain relations of amaterial rather than the force-deformation characteristics,
Studied
by measuring the loadand deformation, and thencalculating the correspondingstress and strain,
Relationship
 between stress and strain isoften used to characterize themechanical properties of materials, (
Such
data aregenerally obtained using amechanical testing machinewhich enables strain to bemeasured as a function of stressand recorded automatically).
 Propor 
 
tional LimitElastic Limi
The
greatest stress that a material will sustain without adeviation from the proportionality of stress to strain,
(Below
the proportional limit, no permanent deformationoccurs in a structure,
When
stress is removed, thestructure will return to its original dimensions),
Application
of a stress greater than the proportionallimit results in a permanent or irreversible strain in thesample.
Maximum
stress that a material will withstandwithout permanent deformation,
Region
of thestress-strain curve below the proportional limit iscalled the elastic region, or reversible strain willoccur,
Region
of the stress-strain curve beyondthe proportional limit is called the plastic region,
Both
the proportional and elastic limits are quitedifferent in values for different materials.
Yield Strength ( Stress) γS Ultimate Strength (Stress) UTSFracture Strength(Stress)
Stress
at which a material exhibits aspecified limiting deviation from proportionality of stress to strain,
Aproperty
used to describe the stress atwhich the material begins to function ina plastic manner,
Amount
of permanentstrain may be referred to as the
percentoffset
, (Many specifications use 0.2% asa convention,
Offset Yield Strength
),
Determined
by selecting the desiredoffset and drawing a line parallel to thelinear region of the stress-strain curve,(
The point
at which the parallel lineintersects the curve is the yield stress).
Maximum
stress that a material canwithstand before failure in tension, whereasthe
ultimate compressive strength orstress (UCS)
is the maximum stress amaterial can withstand in compression,
Analloy
that has been stressed to near theultimate strength will be permanentlydeformed.
Stress
at which amaterial fractures,
A material
doesnot necessarilyfracture at the point at which themaximum stressoccurs,
For
thespecific cases of many dental alloyssubjected totension, theultimate andfracture strengthsare the same.
 ElongationElastic Modulus (Young's modulus)Flexibility
The
deformation that results from theapplication of a tensile force,
Total
 percent elongation includes both theelastic elongation and the plasticelongation, (
Such
a material, as many
dental gold alloys
, has a high value for  plastic or permanent elongation and, ingeneral, is a ductile type of alloy,whereas a material with only 1 %elongation would possess little
Represents
the stiffness of a materialwithin the elastic range,
It
can bedetermined from a stress-strain curve bycalculating the ratio of stress to strain, or the slope of the lineal- region of the curve& is reported in Mpa or Gpa,
ElasticModulus
=Stress/Strain or 
E
=δ/Є,
The
stronger the basic attraction forces, thegreater the values of the elastic modulusand the more rigid the material will be.
Describes
theamount of strainup to the elasticlimit,
Thusflexibility
is thetotal amount of elastic strain(deformation) in amaterial.
 
Asatisfactoryresponse tohot and coldstimuli in themouth.
The degree
of spreading of a liquid on a solid, or the wetting tendency, is expressed by thequantity called the contact angle or the angle of contact between the liquid and solid surfaces,(the lower the contact angle, the greater the wetting tendency will be),
 
Surface
tension of liquidsgenerally decreases with increased temperature, (
This
is also true for molten metals,
This
is thereason why an increased pouring or casting temperature for a cast crown will aid in producingsharp mold details,
Requirements for Formation of Strong Adhesive Joint
: (
Cleanliness
,
Penetration
and wetting rough surface,
Formation
of strong chemical or mechanical bond,
Minimizing
thermal stresses,
High
surface energy of solid and low contact angle of adhesive),
Itis
best to use low surface energy materials for the restoration, and to adequately polish margins of restorations to lower-surface energies.
Optical PropertiesLight
is a form of electromagnetic radiant energy that can be detected by the human eye, (
The eye
is sensitive towavelengths from approximately 400 nm (violet) to 700 nm (dark red),
The combinations
of wavelengths present in a beam of light determine the property usually called
color
).
 Perception of color3 Dimensions of colorColor MeasurementMetamerism
In order
for an objectto be visible, it musteither emit light or itmust reflect or transmitlight incident upon itfrom an externalsource, (
The latter
isthe case for objects thatare of dental interest,
Light
from an objectwhich is incident on aneye is focused onto theretina and convertedinto nerve Impulses,which are transmittedto the brain,
Cone-shaped
cells in theretina are responsiblefor color vision,
Reflected
light isabsorbed by retina and perceived in brain as"red",
Individuals
vary greatly in their ability to distinguishcolors).
Quantitatively
, color is described as athree-dimensional quantity specified byvalues for three variables, hue, chroma, andvalue.
One
frequently usedmethod of specifyingcolors is the
Munsell
color coordinate system, (
On
the
vertical
axis is plotted the
value
, The
hue
isrepresented by a
circle
,The
chroma
is the distancefrom the
centre
),
Clinically
in the dentallab, color matching isusually done by the use of 
shade
 
guide
, (
An
alternative system is toexpress color in the
L*a*b*
system designated by the
CornrnissionInternationale del'Eclairage
(
ClE
), whereL* is the lightness factor and a* and b* arechromaticity coordinates;chromaticity includes bothhue and chroma),
Appearance
of an objectdepends on the nature of the light by which theobject is viewed, (
Sunlight
&
florescent
lamps arecommon sources of light inthe dental lab).
Objects
thatappear to becolor matchedunder onetype of lightmay appear verydifferentunder another lightsource,(
color
matchingshould bedone under two or moredifferentlight sources,one of whichshould be
sunlight
).
 HueChromaValue
Refers
to the propertycommonlyassociatedwith thecolor of anobject,whether it isred, green, blue, etc,
This
 
refers
to thedominantwavelengths present.
Refers
tothestrengthor degreeof saturationfor a particular hue,
Thehigher
thechroma,the morevivid isthe color.
A
 photometric parameter associatedwith totalreflectanceor luminance,(
the
 brightness or darkness of an object).
Water SorptionSolubility & DisintegrationSetting TimeRepresents
the amount of water adsorbed on the surface andabsorbed into the body of thematerial during fabrication or whilethe restoration is in service,
Aserious
warpage and dimensionalchange in the material are associatedwith a high percentage of water sorption,
Polymers
such as thoseused in resin composites, denturesand soft liners are susceptible
A measurement
of the extent towhich it will dissolve in a givenfluid, for example, water or saliva,
A high solubility
will severely limitthe effective lifetime of therestoration,
 
Degradation
mayfollow a sequence of absorption,disintegration, and solution,
Variables
such as cementcomposition, thickness, molarity,& ph of the medium are
Setting
 
time
is related to the timetaken for the material to reach its finalset state or develop properties whichare considered adequate for thatapplication
, Associated
with thereaction rates and affect the practicalapplications of many materials inrestorative dentistry,
 
Does
notindicate the completion of thereaction,
One
convenient andcommonly used method is resistance permanent elongation and would beconsidered
brittle
),,
An alloy
that has ahigh value for total elongation can be bent permanently without danger of fracture,(
Clasps
can be adjusted, orthodonticappliances can be prepared, and crowns or inlays can be burnished if they are prepared from alloys With high values for elongation).
 Ductility & MalleabilityResilience & Toughness
Gold
is the most ductile and malleable metal, and
silver
issecond,
Dentist
manually closes the open margins by a process called
burnishing
(3 distinct steps,
denting
,
bending
, and
adapting
by flattening).ResilienceToughness
Resistance
of a material to permanent deformation,
Indicates
the amount of energy necessary to deformthe material to the proportional limit,
Measured
by the areaunder the elastic portion of the stress-strain curve,
Units
MN/m
3
, whichrepresents energy per unitvolume of material,
Resilience
has a particular importance in theevaluation of orthodonticwires in moving a tooth.
Resistance
of amaterial tofracture,
Indication
of the amount of energynecessary tocause fracture,
The area
under the elastic and plastic portionsof a stress-straincurve representsthe toughness of a material
Units
of toughness arethe same asresilience.DuctilityMalleability
Ability
of a material towithstand permanentdeformation under a tensileload without rupture, (
Ametal
which may be drawnreadily into a wire is saidto be ductile),
A property
related to the workabilityof a material in the mouth,& to burnishability of themargins of a casting.
Ability
of a material towithstand permanentdeformation without ruptureunder compression, (as inhammering or rolling into asheet).
Tensile Properties of Brittle Materials:
(
A variety
of brittle restorative materials including dental amalgam,cements, ceramic materials, plaster and stone, and some impression materials, is important to dental practice,
In
many instances the material is much weaker in tension than in compression, which may contribute to failure of thematerial in service,
However
, brittle materials must be gripped with caution, and any stress concentrations at thegrips can lead to premature fracture,
An alternative
method of testing brittle materials, in which the ultimatetensile strength of a brittle material is determined through compressive testing,
The method
is described as the
diametral
compression test for tension,
the Brazilian test
, or 
the
 
indirect tensile test
,
In
this test method,a disk of the brittle material is compressed diametrically in a testing machine until fracture occurs,
(tensile stress)
σ
x
= 2P {Load}/ (πDT) {Diameter × Thickness}).
Transverse StrengthImpact StrengthTear Strength
Transverse
strength of a material isobtained when a load is applied inthe middle of a simple beam, whichis supported at each end,
Such
a testis called a
three-point bending test
,and transverse strength is oftendescribed as the
modulus of rupture
or 
flexure strength
,
Useful
in comparing denture base materialsin which a stress of this type isapplied to the denture duringmastication, also in long bridgespans in which the biting stress may be severe,
When
applying load,specimen bends, so principalstresses applied on upper surface arecompressive & those on lower surface are tensile, (
Law
p.42).
Energy
required to fracture amaterial under an impact force,
ACharpy-type impact tester
 isusuallyused
, (A pendulum isreleased which swings down tofracture the specimen),
Energy
lost by the pendulum during the fractureof the specimen can be determined by a comparison of the length of itsswing after the impact with its freeswing when no impact occurs,
Energy
units are joules,inch/pounds,
In Izod impact tester,
the specimen is clamped verticallyat one end instead of at the center of the specimen supported at both endsas for the
Charpy.A measure
of the resistanceof a material to tearing forces,
Important
property of dental polymers used in thinsections, as flexibleimpression materials in inter- proximal areas maxillofacialmaterials, and soft liners for dentures,
Depends
on the rateof loading, as the viscoelasticnature of the materials tested,
More
rapid loading ratesresult in ↑
 
values of tear strength,
Clinically
, the rapid(or snap) removal of analginate impression is imp to↓ the tear strength & permanent deformation.Particularly to water absorption and Important, (
It
is possible for a To penetration, (Thus a material may

Activity (54)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Vedaste Mugabe liked this
Rajee Vasan Sri liked this
Asmaa M. Jamal liked this
Mix Jojo liked this
Espanto Leira liked this
Espanto Leira liked this
Su Juice liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->