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CAP15

CAP15

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P R O C E S O S
D EC O N T O R M A D O
P A R AP L A S T IC O S
C O N T E N ID OD E LC A P \u00edT U L O
1 5 .1
P ro p ie d a d e s
d elo sp o l\u00edn re ro s
fr"\u00a1lrd ic lo s
1 5 .2
E x tru s i\u00f3 n
1 5 .2 .1P r o c e s o s
Ye q u iP o s
1 5 .2 .2A n \u00e1 lis isd el ae x trt\u00a1s i\u00f3 n
1 5 .2 .3C o n fig u ra c io n e s
c lelo sd \u00bf rc lo s
yp rc lc lttc lo s
e x trtlirlt\u00a1s
1 5 .2 .4D e fe c to se nl a e x trt\u00a1s i\u00f3 n
P r o c lu c c i\u00f3 n
d el\u00e1 m in a sy p e l\u00edc u la s
P r o c J u c c i\u00f3 n
d efila m e n to s
yfib ra s(h ila trrle ri\u00a1)
P r o c e s o sd ere c u b rin rie trto
M o ld e op o rin y e c c i\u00f3 r r
1 5 .6 .1P r o c e s o s
Ye q uiP o
1 5 .6 .2E lm o lc le
1 5 .6 .3M \u00e1 q u in a sd em o lc le op o rirry e c c i\u00f3 tt
15 . 6 . 4C o n tra c c i\u00f3 n
1 5 .6 .5D e fe c to se n m o ltle op o rin y e c c io tr
1 5 .6 .6 o tro sflro c e s o sc len t,rlc lc ollo r illy txti t i t t
1 5 .7
M o lrle op o rc o n lp r e s i\u00f3 nytra n s fe re rrc la
1 5 .7 .1M c \u00a1ld e oP o rc o m P re s i\u00f3 n
1 5 .7. 2M o ld e op o rtra n s fe re lrc i.t
15 .8
M o lc le op o rs o p la c loy ln o lc le orc lta ti t \u00a1 t l \u00a1 l
15 .U ..1M o lc le op o rs o P la c lc r
15 .8 .2M o lrle oro ta c io tl.ll
T e rm o io rn ra d o
F r-rn c lic i\u00f3 n
(c o la d o )d ep l\u00e1 s tic -o
P ro c e s a ln ie n to
y fo rrn a c lo
c lee s l)tln ra s
c le\u00a1ltll\u00edttte ro s
15 .11 . 1P ro c -e s o s
c lee s P u tn a d o
1 5 .1 1. 2P r o c e s o s
c lec o n fo rn la c lc r
1 5 .1 2
C o n s id e r a c io n e s
lla rae lc lis e \u00f1 oc le\u00a1rro c ltlc to s
1 5 .12 .1 C o n s ic le r a c io n e s
g e n e ra le s
15 .12 .2 P l\u00e1 s tic o s
e x tru ic lo s
15 .12 .3 P a rte srrto lc le a c la s
1 s .3
1 5 .4
1 5 .s
1 5. 6
1 5 .9
1 5 .1 0
1 s .11
P ro c e s o
d ec o n fo rm a d o
p a rap l\u00e1 s tic o s
3 0 9
[-9 s p l\u00e1 s tic g sp u e d e ns e rc o n fo rm a d o se nu n a a m p lia v a rie d a dd e p ro d u c to s ,
com o p a rte s
r n o lc le a c la s ,
s e c c io n e se x tru id a s ,h o ja syp e l\u00edc u la s ,re c u b rim ie n to sa is la n te sp a ra a la m b re s
e l\u00e9 c tric o sy fib ra sp a rate x tile s .A dem \u00e1s,lo s p l\u00e1 s tic o ss o nfre c u e n te m e n tee lin g re d ie n te
p rin -
c i\u00a1 la lc lee tro sn ta te ria le sc o tn op in tu ra s ,b a rn ic e s ,a d h e s iv o syv a rio sc o m p u e s to s
c o nm a triz
c lep g l\u00edn re ro .E n e s tec a p \u00edtu loc o n s ic le ra re m o s
la s te c n o lo g \u00eda sd e c o n fo rm a d od e e s to sp ro -
c lu c to s ,p o s p o n ie n d ola s p in tu ra s ,b a rn ic e s ,a d h e s iv o sylo s c o m p u e s to sp a rac a p \u00edtu lo sp o s te -
rio re s .M uchgsp r o c e s o sc lec o n fo rn ra d od ep l\u00e1 s tic o sp u e d e na d a p ta rs ea lh u le
(c a p \u00edtu lo l6 )y
a c o n lp u c s to sc n llta triz ,
p o lim \u00e9 r ic a(c a p \u00edtu lo|7 ).
L air\u00a1\u00a1ro r.ta n c i\u00bf r
te c n o l\u00f3 g ic ayc o m e rc ia ld ee s to sp ro c e s o sd e c o n fo n n a d od e riv ad e lc re c ie n -
t e v a lo r \u00bf e le s \u00a1ra te ria le sq u es ep ro c e s a n .
L a sa p lic a c io n e sd e lo s p l\u00e1 s tic o ss eh a nin c re m e n ta d o
\u00a1ru c h gr \u00a1 ir sriip itla rn e lrte
q u ep a ralo s n re ta le solo s c e r\u00e1 m ic o sd u ra n telo s \u00fa ltim o s5 0a \u00f1 o s .
E nre a li-
d a rl,n l\u00a1c h a s\u00a1ra rte sh e c h a sa n te rio rm e n ted ern e ta ls eh a c e na h o rad e
p l\u00e1 s tic oyd ec o m p u e s to sd e
\u00a1rl\u00e1 s tic .s .L o n ris l\u00a1os u c e d ec o ne lv ic lr io ;lo s re c ip ie n te sp l\u00e1 s tic o sh a n s u s titu id o
e ng ra n p a rtealo s
t l e v id rir.c \u00a1 e l e n v a s a c lod ep ro d u c to s .E lv o lu m e nto ta ld ep o l\u00edln e ro s
( p l\u00e1 s tic o sy h u le s )e x c e d e
a h g raa l c lele s n re ta le s(e lto n e la je e s to d a v \u00edam uchom enord e b id oala d e n s id a dd e
lo s m e ta le s ,
a r'q \u00a1ee ly o l\u00a1\u00a1re n e s c o n s ic le ra b le rn e n te
rn a y o r).P o c le m o sid e n tific a rv a ria sra z o n e sp o rla sc u a le s
Io sp r o c c s o sd cfo rllra c loc lep l\u00edrs tic oS o nin lp o rta rtte s :
In ile nt \u00a1 l l av n r ie c la c l
c a s iililn ita d ad efo rm a sp a rala sp ie z a s '
l'a ln le n tet l os o nlte c e s a rio slo s fo rm a d o sp o s te rio re s .
A u rrq trep a ra fo rm ra rp l\u00e1 s tic o ss ere q u ie reu s u a lm e n tee lc a le n ta m ie n to ,
s en e c e s itan te n o s
t,rtc r.,q ,\u00edtr
(p rep a ralo s n le ta le s ,
p o rq u ela ste rn p e ra tu ra s
d ep ro c e s a m ie n to
s o nm uchom \u00e1sb a ja s
\u00a1ra ralo sp l\u00edrs tic o s .
Ac \u00bf rrs ad ela sb a ja ste rn p e ra tu ra s
u s a c la s
e ne lp ro c e s a tn ie n to ,
e lm a n e jod e lp ro d u c tos esim -
\u00a1 r l i l ' i c atlu r-a \u00a1tel a p ro tlu c c i\u00f3 n .
M uchosn r\u00e9 to c lo s
d ep ro c e s a m ie n to
p l\u00e1 s tic os o nd eu n as o la
.\u00a1rc r.,t.i< irr
(\u00a1ro re .je in p lo ,
n r o lc le o )
\u00a1ro rta n to ,e ln ra n e jod ep ro d u c to ss ere d u c es u s ta n c ia lm e n te
c ()n ll)a t'irtltlc o l't lo sllle ta le s .
N .s cr.c t\u00a1u ic r-e
\u00a1c \u00bf r5 \u00bf rc lo
\u00a1 x r '\u00a1rin tu raoc le \u00a1ro s ita c irin
p a ralo sp l\u00e1 s tic o s ,
e x c e p toe nc irc u n s ta n -
c i r r sin u s tlitlc s .
f l r 'r ,
s c e x p u s oe ne l c a p \u00edtu lo1 0 ,lo s c lo stip o sd ep l\u00e1 s tic o ss o nte rm o \u00a1tl\u00e1 s tic o s
yte rm o fiio s '
L ,ad if'er.e llc ia., ,\u00a1i,. lo s te rrlro fijo sc lu ra n tes uc a le n ta m ie n toy c o n fo rm a c i\u00f3 ns u fre n
u np ro c e s od e
c ,r.\u00bf rtlrr.
( \u00a1 r cc a u s au n rra rn b iolu \u00edrn ic op e rm a n e n tee ns u e s tru c tu ram o le c u la r(e n c a d e n c tm ie t\u00fa o
It.rttt.tt.r,t.,r\u00bf \u00bf l).
\u00a1lr\u00bf rv e z(lL rcs eh a \u00a1rc u \u00a1 'a c lo ,
n o p u e c le tt
ftln c lirs e\u00bf rtra v \u00e9 sd e re c a le n ta ln ie n to '
P o re l
c . r l r - ^ r . i e .
lg sI c r - r r r o \u00a1 r l i i s r i c r ) s
n ()e x \u00a1le rirn e n l\u00bf u l
e lp r o c e s oc lec u ra d oys l-le s tru c tu raq tt\u00edn lic ap e r-
,l\u00bf rlc c cb \u00bf is ic \u00bf u rrc n te
s in c a n rtrioe n lo s re c a le n ta tn ie rtto s ,
a u flc u a n d os et'r a n s l'o r ln e n
c les \u00f3 llc loa
l\u00edq ,itlo .l . . stc r.\u00a1re \u00a1rlris tic o s
s o nlo s ti\u00a1 lc lsc o m e rc i\u00bf rle s
rn \u00e1 sitrtp o rta n te s
d elo sd o s ;c o ln p r e n c le n
m \u00e1s
d c lt'i0 7 ,d eIto rle la jeto la lc iep l\u00edrs tic o s '
D e a c u e r.c loc o nl afo rn rad e lp ro d u c tore s u lta n te ,lo sp r o c e s o sd e
c o n fo rm a d od e p l\u00e1 s tic o s
s e\u00a1ru e c le ,c l\u00bf r s ific a r
e n :l )p ro d u c to se x tru ic lo sc o n tin u o sc o n s e c c i\u00f3 ntra n s v e rs a l
c o n s ta n te '
c o n
e x c e p c ir int l e l\u00e1 m in a s(h o ja s ),p e l\u00edc u la syfila m e n tos ;2 )h o ja so
l\u00e1 r n in a sc o n tin u a syp e l\u00edc u la s ;
3 )
fila n re rto sc ,'tirr\u00a1o s(fib ra s );4 )p a rte sm o ld e a d a s ,
s \u00f3 lic la sen sun la y o r\u00eda ;5 )p a rte sm o ld e a d a sh u e -
c \u00bf lsc o . \u00a1ra r.e c le s
re la tiv \u00bf u n e n te
d e lg a c la s ;
6 )p a rte sd is c re ta sh e c h a sd e l\u00e1 m in a sp re fo m rla d a s
y pe-
l\u00edc trla s ,7 )fu rrc lic io n e s
yg )p ro tlu c tu se x \u00a1ra n d id o s
(e s p u m a s ).
E s tec a p \u00edtu loe x a tn in a l'\u00e1 c a d a
u n ad e
c s t.s c .tc g .r.\u00edu s .l - . sp r.o c e s o s
c o rn c rc i\u00bf rlc s
rn \u00e1 sim p o rta n te se s t\u00edtn\u00bf r s o c ia c lo s
c o n lo s te rn lo p l\u00e1 s ti-
c 's :l ' sp r.()c e s o s
t l e rn a y o rr e le v a n c ias o nla e x tru s i\u00f3 nye l rn o ld e op o r in y e c c i\u00f3 n 'u n a b re v eh is -
t . r i l\u00bf el . sp i.o c e s o s
r l ec t'rn fo rn r\u00bf rd o
c lep l\u00e1 s tic o ss ep re s e n tae ttl a n o tah is t\u00f3 ric al5 'l'
3 1 0
C a p ftu lo1 5/ P r o c e s od ec o n fo rm a d op a rap l\u00e1 s tic o s
h \u00cds t\u00f3 rlc aI5 .I
d ec o n fo rm a d o
d ep ld s tic o s
t i
,
1 g 3 \u00a1\u00a1*,e
I e q u tp op a rac o n fo rm a r
p l\u00e1 s tic o se v o lu c io n \u00f3s ig n ific a tiv a m e n te
d e s d el a
te c n o lo g \u00edad e lp ro c e s a m ie n to
d e lh u le .E sd ig n od em e n c io n a r
e n trelo sa n tig u o s
c o n trib u id o re s
aE d w inC h a ffe e ,
u ne s ta d o u n id e n s e
q u ed e s a rro ll\u00f3 ,
a lre d e d o r
d e1 8 3 5 ,
u n m o lin od ed o sr o d illo sc a le n ta d o s
c o nv a p o rp a ram e z c la r
a d itiv o sc o ne lh u le
(s e c c i\u00f3 nl\u00f3 .1 .3 ).
T a m b i\u00e9 nfu ein v e n to r
d eu nd is p o s itiv o
s im ila rlla m a d oc a la n d r ia ,
q u e
c o n s is tee nu n as e ried er o d illo sc a le n ta d o s
p a rare c u b rir
te lac o nh u le(s e c c i\u00f3 n1 5 .3 )
A m basm \u00e1 q u ln a ss eu s a nto d a v fap a rap l\u00e1 s tic o sy h u le s '
L o sp rim e ro se x tru s o re s ,
in v e n ta d o sa lre d e d o r
de 1845e nIn g la te rra ,
eranm \u00e1quinas
a c c io n a d a s
p o rm e d iod eu n \u00e9 m b o loq u es eu tiliz a b a np a rae x tru ire l h u ley p a rae l
re c u b rim ie n to
d ea la m b ree l\u00e9 c tric oc o nh u le .L ad ific u lta dc o nlo s e x tru s o re s
a c c io n a d o s
p o r\u00e9 m b o loe raq u eo p e ra b a nd e m a n e rain te rm ite n te .
E ram uyn e c e s a riou n e x tru s o r
q u ep u d ie rao p e ra rc o n tin u a m e n te ,
e n e s p e c ia l
p a rare c u b rim ie n tod e a la m b reyc a b le .
A u n q u ev a rio sin d iv id u o stra b a ja ro nc o nv a rio sg ra d o sd e \u00e9 x itoe n la c re a c i\u00f3 nde un
e x tru s o r
tip oto rn illo(s e c c i\u00f3 n1 5 .2 .1 ),
s ea c re d itala in v e n c i\u00f3 na M a th e wC r a ye n
In g la te rra ;
s up a te n ted a tad e 1 8 7 9 .
P o s te rio rm e n te ,
a lc le s a rro lla rs e
lo ste rm o p l\u00e1 s tic o s ,
s ea d a p ta ro nlo s e x tru s o re s
d e to rn illoq u eo r ig in a lm e n te
e s ta b a nd is e \u00f1 a d o s
p a raltu le .
E n 1 9 3 5 s ein tro d u jou n am \u00e1 q u in ad e e x tru s i\u00f3 ne s p e c \u00edfic a ln e n te
c lis e \u00f1 a d a
p a ra
te rm o p l\u00e1 s tic o s .
L a sm \u00e1 q u in a sd e m o ld e op o rin y e c c i\u00f3 np a r ap l\u00e1 s tic o sf u e r o na d a p t a c i o n e s
d e l
e q u ip od is e \u00f1 a d op a rafu n d ic i\u00f3 ne n d a d o sm e t\u00e1 lic o s(v \u00e9 a s en o tah is t\u00f3 ric a1 7 .2 ).
A lre d e d o rd e1 8 7 2 ,
lo h nH y a tt,u n afig u raim p o rta n tee ne ld e s a rro llod e lo sp l\u00e1 s tic o s
(n o tah is t\u00f3 ric al0 .t),p a te n t\u00f3 u n am \u00e1 q u in ad em o ld e oe s p e c \u00edfic a m e n te
p a rap l\u00e1 s tic o .
F u eu n am \u00e1 q u in ad e tip o\u00e9 m b o lo(s e c c i\u00f3 n1 r.6 .3 )L am \u00e1 q u in ad e m o ld e op o rin y e c c i\u00f3 n
e n s ufo rm am o d e rn as ein tro d uj o e n l9 2 l ,lo sc o n tro le ss e m ia u to m \u00e1 tic o s
s ea \u00f1 a d ie ro n
e n1 9 3 7 .
L a sm \u00e1 q u in a stip o\u00e9 m b o lofu e ro nla sq u es eu tiliz a r o nn o rm a lm e n te
e nl a
in d u s triad e lp l\u00e1 s tic op o rm uchasd \u00e9 c a d a s ,
h a s taq u el as u p e rio rid a d
d e la sm \u00e1 q u in a s
c o n to r n illore c ip ro c a n te ,
d e s a rro lla d a s
e nE s ta d o sU n id o s ,
e n1 9 5 2 ,
p o rW illia mW ille rt
lo h ic ie r o no b v io .
E m pezarem os
n u e s trae x p o s ic i\u00f3 nd elo sp ro c e s o sd e c o n fo rn ra d oc lep l\u00e1 s tic o ,e x a m ilr a n d ola s
p ro p ie d a d e s
d elo s p o l\u00edm e ro sfu n d id o s ,p o rq u ec a s ito d o slo sp ro c e s o sd ec o n fo n n a c i\u00f3 nd e te rm o -
p l \u00e1 s t i c o s c o m p a r t e ne lp a s ocom \u00fan d ec a le n ta m ie n tod e tp l\u00e1 s tic op a ra h a c e rq u e \u00e9 s teflu y a .
1 5 .1
P R O P IE D A D E S
D EL O S P O L IM E R O S
F U N D ID O S
N o ta
P ro c e s o s
P a rafo rm a ru n p o l\u00edm e rote rm o p l\u00e1 s tic o ,
\u00e9 s ter l e b ec a l e n t a r s e
ltits l\u00a1t
t\u00a1ttclo ttteu rl\u00bf t
c o r ls is le r tc iit
l \u00ed t \u00a1 t r r -
d a . E s to e s loq u e s ec o n o c ecom ou np o l\u00edn te ro.fim d id o ,e l c u a le x h ib ev a ria sp ro p ie d a d e s
q tte.s e
c o n s id e ra r\u00e1 ne ne s tas e c c i\u00f3 n .
V is c o s id a d
D e b id o a s u a lto p e s o m o le c u la r ,u np o l\u00edm e ro fu n d id oe s u n flu id oe s p e s oc o n
a ltav is c o s id a d .

L a v is c o s id a d ,ta l c o m od e fin im o se l t\u00e9 rm in oe nla s e c c i\u00f3 n 3 .1 ,e s u n ap ro p ie d a d d e lflu id o q u er e la c io n ae l e s fu e rz oc o rta n tee x p e rim e n ta d od u ra n tee l flu jod e lflu id o c o nl a v e lo c i- d a dd e c o rte .L a v is c o s id a de sim p o rta n teen elp ro c e s a m ie n tod ep o l\u00edm e ro s ,d e b id o a q u e la m a - y o r\u00edad e lo s m \u00e9 to d o s d e c o n fo rm a d oin v o lu c r a ne l flu jod e p o l\u00edrn e ro sfu n d id o sa tr\u00bf tv \u00e9 sc le lo s p e q u e \u00f1 o sc a n a l e so a b e rtu ra sd e ld a d o .L a sv e lo c id a d e sd e flu jo s o n fre c u e n te m e n teg ra n d e s ,e im p lic a na lta sv e lo c id a d e s

d ec o rte ;y com o lo s e s fu e rz o sc o lta n te ss ein c re m e n ta lt
c o n l\u00bf tv e lo c i-
d a dd e c o rte ,s ere q u ie re np re s io n e s
s ig n ific a tiv a s
p a rar e a liz a re s to sp r o c e s o s .

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