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Biology Exam Paper

Biology Exam Paper

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03/27/2012

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Whitney Wilson24 November, 2009Biology IPopulation Biology of Two Species of the Freshwater Protozoan
Paramecium
IntroductionIn this experiment, two species of 
 Paramecium
will be tested alone and together. Their growth will beobserved and recorded every two days until sixteen days is complete. The environment of the
 Parameciumcaudatum
and
 Paramecium
 
aurelia
will include the freshwater they survive in and rice as the source of food.Under perfect conditions, organisms will continue to grow at an exponential growth. When there is an abundanceof food, space to continue to grow, and a water source, exponential growth will occur. Competition occurs between species. This competition for resources is a population limitation. Intraspecific competition iscompetition among one single species. Interspecific competition is competition among two or more species.Both affect the population size. “For most species, resources become limiting as populations grow...The upper  boundary for the population size is known as the carrying capacity.”(Brooker 1208) Once the carrying capacityis reached, the genetic make-up of the organism can change to adapt to another niche. “The “competitiveexclusion principle” states that if two non-interbreeding populations occupying the same ecological niche aresympatric, one will ultimately exclude the other.”(Hutchinson 1965) In this experiment, the
 Paramecium
willcontinue to grow in their own environment until carrying capacity has been reached where a continual number will then be recorded. With the mixed species, one species will continue to grow as the other one will decrease or even cease to exist.MethodsMethods of the experiment included the two species of 
 Paramecium, Paramecium caudatum
and
 Paramecium aurelia
. Equipment used in this experiment included the following: two species of 
 Paraecium
, rice,three test tubes, five milliliters of water in each test tube, two flasks, two pipettes, a microscope, wet mountslides, and a calendar. In the procedure, three test tubes were filled with rice as the source of food for the
 Paramecium
. The two flasks were filled with the two different species of 
 Paramecium
, each in their own flask.The pipettes were used to transport five milliliters of each species to the test tubes.
 P. caudatum
was transported
 
Wilson 2to the first flask.
 P. aurelia
was transported to the second flask. Each contained five milliliters. In the third flask,five milliliters of each
 Paramecium
were placed in the same flask so the total amount in the flask measured toten milliliters. Each flask was made into a wet mount slide with the slides provided. There were three slides, onecontaining species from each of the three flasks. Slide one containing
 P. caudatum
was placed under themicroscope and counted.
 P. aurelia
was placed under the microscope and counted. Last, the mixed species were placed under the microscope and counted as well. For every 1 species counted on each slide, they weremultiplied by two to acquire the appropriate number for one milliliter. This is because each slide only contained0.5 milliliters. These calculations were recorded onto a data sheet. This recording occurred on day zero. Everytwo days this information was recorded from each slide; new slides were made every two days. A calendar kepttrack of the days.ResultsIn the results, both species continued to grow and reach their carrying capacity in their own flasks alone.
 Paramecium caudatum
reached its carrying capacity the fastest. This species reached its carrying capacity onday eight while
 Paramecium aurelia
reached its carrying capacity on day ten. In the mixed flask with bothspecies,
 P. aurelia
continued to grow while
 P. caudatum
's growth increased a little and then decreased to beingnonexistent.
Data Table 1:
Day
 P. caudatum
alone, cells/mL
 P. aurelia
alone,cells/mL
 P. caudatum
mixed, cells/mL
 P. aurelia
mixed,cells/mL02222
21081064285424366288618648609818841056100894126010049014609209816601000100
 
Wilson 3
Graph 1: Amount of Paramecium caudatum and aurelia Separate and Mixed for Sixteen Days
Discussion/ConclusionIn conclusion, both species survived on their own in separate flasks. This proves the fact that a speciescan survive without competition and the proper food source, water, light, etc. needed to survive. Both species of 
 Paramecium
reached carrying capacity in their own separate flasks, which also proves that with the idealconditions, a species can continue to grow and reach the maximum amount of species possible in a given area.Both species also experienced exponential growth. In the two flasks, the two separate species had perfectconditions with a supply of food, room to grow, and no competition. In the mixed flask, the
 Paramecium
weregiven the same amount of food that was supplied when they were separated. Although this is true, the resultsshowed that
 Paramecium aurelia
survived and dominated over the
 Paramecium caudatum
. These results provethe competitive exclusion principle that states if two non-interbreeding populations live in the same niche, one population will exterminate the other. On day ten,
 P. caudatum
lowered to a count of only eight and on daytwelve lowered to four. By day fourteen and sixteen, their entire population had become extinct. On the other 
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16020406080100120
Days
   S   i   z   e   o   f   P   o   p   u   l   a   t   i   o   n   (   c   e   l   l   s   /   m   L   )
P. caudatum aloneP. aurelia aloneP. caudatum mixedP. aurelia mixed

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