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a.s. caparas/06 a.s. caparas/06
GE 161 –Geometric Geodesy
Lecture No. 4Department of Geodetic EngineeringUniversity of the Philippines
Introduction to Geodesy: Concepts in GeodesyIntroduction to Geodesy: Concepts in Geodesy
The Ellipsoid and theReference Surface

The Ellipsoid and theThe Ellipsoid and theReference SurfaceReference Surface
Lecture 4Lecture 4
GE 161GE 161 – –Geometric GeodesyGeometric Geodesy
Concepts in Geodesy:Concepts in Geodesy:The Ellipsoid and the ReferenceThe Ellipsoid and the ReferenceSurfaceSurface
Geometric Models of the EarthGeometric Models of the Earth
Some of the Earth’s surfacesas proposed by the differentmathematicians andphilosopher can berepresented by differentgeometric models.Geometric models that areused to represent earth’ssurface are generally called a“spheroid”.Among these spheroids, theOblate Spheroid or theEllipsoid of Revolutionrepresent the flattened earthas proposed by Newton andHuygenThis figure represents best,geometrically, the surface of the earth

Lecture 4Lecture 4
GE 161GE 161 – –Geometric GeodesyGeometric Geodesy
Concepts in Geodesy:Concepts in Geodesy:The Ellipsoid and the ReferenceThe Ellipsoid and the ReferenceSurfaceSurface
Ellipsoid of RevolutionEllipsoid of Revolution
An ellipsoid of revolution is thefigure which would be formed byrotating an ellipse about its shorter axisAn ellipsoid of revolution isuniquely defined by specifying twodimensionsGeodesists, by convention, usethe semi-major axis and flatteningThe size is represented by theradius at the equator-the semi-major axis-and designated by theletter, aThe shape of the ellipsoid is givenby the flattening, f, which indicateshow closely an ellipsoidapproaches the spherical shapeSemi-major axis and the flatteningare just two among the elementsand parameters of the ellipse usedfor the ellipsoid.
Lecture 4Lecture 4
GE 161GE 161 – –Geometric GeodesyGeometric Geodesy
Concepts in Geodesy:Concepts in Geodesy:The Ellipsoid and the ReferenceThe Ellipsoid and the ReferenceSurfaceSurface
The Ellipse and its Fundamental ParametersThe Ellipse and its Fundamental Parameters
An ellipse is a conicsection defined as thelocus of points thatmoves such that the sumof the distances of thepoint from two fixedpoints is a constantAn ellipse hasfundamental parameterswhich determines itsshape and elementswhich determines its size
zxPF
2
F
1
P
1
P
2
O ABab
The sum of the distances of the red, blue, and greylines are all equal to a constant value

Lecture 4Lecture 4
GE 161GE 161 – –Geometric GeodesyGeometric Geodesy
Concepts in Geodesy:Concepts in Geodesy:The Ellipsoid and the ReferenceThe Ellipsoid and the ReferenceSurfaceSurface
The Ellipse and its Fundamental ParametersThe Ellipse and its Fundamental Parameters
The elements of theellipse are:1.Foci of the ellipse2.Center of the ellipse3.Semi-major axis, a4.Semi-minor axis, b5.Focal distance, c
zxPF
2
F
1
P
1
P
2
O ABab
Lecture 4Lecture 4
GE 161GE 161 – –Geometric GeodesyGeometric Geodesy
Concepts in Geodesy:Concepts in Geodesy:The Ellipsoid and the ReferenceThe Ellipsoid and the ReferenceSurfaceSurface
The Ellipse and its Fundamental ParametersThe Ellipse and its Fundamental Parameters
The fundamentalparameters of the ellipseare:1.Flattening or Polar Flattening, f 2.First Eccentricity, e3.Second Eccentricity, e’4.Angular Eccentricity,
α
Formulas:
e'
α
;e
α
; f  1
α
bba )e' bb-ae' abaeab-aeaba f
222222222222
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