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Table Of Contents

1.3 Phosphoric acid production processes
1.3.1. Introduction of process routes
1.3.2. The dry processes
1.3.3. The wet processes
1.3.3.1. General procedure
1.3.3.2. Acidulation with hydrochloric acid
1.3.3.3. Acidulation with nitric acid
). Acidulation with sulphuric acid
1.5. Aimof this study
2. SCOPE OF THIS INVESTIGATION
3. OVERVIEW OF THE CTPA PROCESS
3.1. Summary
3.2. Introduction
3.3. Objective of the study
3.4. Description of the CTPA process
3.4.1. Introduction to the process
3.4.2. The digestion stage
3.4.3. The crystallisation stages
3.1.1. The filtration stages
3.4.5. The fluoride removal
3.5. Simplified process flowsheet and mass balance
3.6. Conclusions
3.7. Literature
1. THE DIGESTION OF PHOSPHATE ORE IN PHOSPHORIC ACID
1.1 . Summary
1.2. Introduction
t.3. The digestion stage of the CTPA process
4.4. Experimental
1.5. Results
4.6. Discussion
4,6.1. Influence of the phosphoric acid concentration
4.6.2. Influence of the temperature
4.6.3. Conclusion
4.7. A kinetic model of the digestion process
4.8. Determination of the masstransfer coefficient
1.10. Nomenclature
1.11. Literature
5. CRYSTALLISATION OF CALCIUM SULPHATE HEMIHYDRATE
5.1. Summary
5.2. Introduction
5.3. Experimental
5.4.1. The hemihydrate crystals
5.1.2. Incorporation of phosphate ions
5.4.3. Incorporation of cadmiumions
5.5. Conclusions
6. FILTRATION OF CALCIUM SULPHATE HEMIHYDRATE
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Theory of filtration
6.3. Experimental
6.3.1. Equipment
6.4. Results and discussion
6.6. Literature
7.H.2. Calculation of the activity coefficients
7.6. Results and discussion
7.10 Appendix: Conversion of w%to molalities
8. MASS AND HEAT BALANCES OF THE CTPA PROCESS
8.2. Process description
8.2.2. Digestion of phosphate ore
8.3. Combined mass and heat balances for each stage
8.6.1. The solubility of HH and DH
8.6.2. Incorporation in HH and DH
8.6.2.1. Incorporation in calcium sulphate hemihydrate
8.6.2.2. Incorporation in calciumsulphate dihydrate
8.6.4. Fluoride distribution coefficients
8.6.5. Density correlations
8.6.5.1. Phosphoric acid
8.6.5.2. Sulphuric acid
8.6.5.3. CDHP solutions
8.6.5.5. Calcium sulphate hemihydrate (HH)
8.6.5.6. Calcium sulphate dihydrate (DH)
8.6.5.7. The phosphate ore
8.6.6. Heat capacities and heat contents
8.6.6.1. Phosphoric acid
8.6.6.2. Sulphuric acid
8.6.6.3. CDHP solutions
8.6.6.5. Calciumsulphate hemihydrate (HH)
8.6.6.6. Calcium sulphate dlhydrate (DH)
8.6.6.7. The phosphate ore
8.6.6.9. Water vapour
8.6.6.10. Carbon dioxide
8.6.6.11. Other compounds
8.6.7. Enthalpies of reaction
8.6.7.1. Digestion of phosphate ore
8.6.7.2. Crystallisation of calcium sulphate hemihydrate (HH)
8.6.7.3. Recrystallisation of HH into DH
8.6.8.1. General procedure
8.6,8.3. Binary heat of mixing in the H^SO^-H-O system
8.6.8.1. Binary heat of mixing in the H PO^-H-SO^ system
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A Clean Technology Phosphoric Acid Process

A Clean Technology Phosphoric Acid Process

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Published by: Larissa Chmilouski Taraciuk on Jul 16, 2014
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12/22/2014

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