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Water Purification

Water Purification

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Published by Mary Cantu

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Published by: Mary Cantu on Dec 01, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Water Purification
Water purification
Water Purification
S.No.Contents Page No.1Introduction3-52Sources of drinking water5-73Water pollution and its sources 8-124Micro-organisms causing water pollution13-165History and trends in water filtration17-196WHO Guidelines for drinking water quality20-357Comparison of filter types368Choice of treatment process37-389Purification of drinking water39-7610Purification of water in rural areas77-7911Household purification of water during emergencies anddisasters80-8312Rehabilitating treatment works after an emergency84-8913Newer techniques for purification of water90-9414Various water supply programmes and projects in ruralareas95-10715Review of literature108-11716Summary 118-11917Bibliography120-26
Water Purification
“Water can be without the company of humans but we as humans can only be without water for afew days”.
1. Introduction
Water is that chemical substance which is essential for every living organism to surviveon this planet. Water is needed by every cell of the organism’s body to perform normal function.In typical usage, water refers only to itsliquidform or state,but the substance also has asolid  state,ice,and agaseousstate,water vapor or steam. Water covers 71% of theEarth's surface, mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground inaquifersand0.001% in theair asvapor ,clouds(formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation.Saltwater oceanshold 97% of surface water,glaciersand polar ice caps2.4%, and other land surface water such asrivers,lakesand ponds0.6%. A very small amount of the Earth's water is contained withinwater towers, biological bodies, manufactured products, andfood stores. Other water is trapped in ice caps, glaciers, aquifers, or in lakes, sometimes providing fresh water for life on land
.Water moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration(evapotranspiration), precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Winds carry water vapor over land at the same rate as runoff into the sea. Over land, evaporation and transpirationcontribute to the precipitation over land. Clean, fresh drinking water is essential to human andother life. Access to safe drinking water has improved steadily and substantially over the lastdecades in almost every part of the world. However, some observers have estimated that by 2025

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