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Definition

Definition

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Published by: api-19880840 on Dec 01, 2009
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03/18/2014

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Definition:
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver.
Causes:
Hepatitis may be due to:
1- Infections:
- Viral hepatitis.

- CMV, herpes simplex, EB- V, yellow fever.
2- Drugs & toxins: Alcohol, isoniazide, Paracetamol.
3- Metabolic:- Wilson's disease.
Here, we are going to discuss viral hepatitis.

- At least 5 types of hepatitis viruses can cause the disease
(HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV ).
- other viruses as CMV,herpes simplex, Eb-V & yellow fever
virus can also cause hepatitis.
Epidemiology:-
Hepatitis A virus:

- Mode of infection:- Faecal - oral route & rarely parenteral
transmission. It spreads into food & water (fresh & salty ones).
Shillfishs are a good source of infection.

- Incubation period: 2-6 weeks.
- The disease occurs mainly in children (5-15 years ) & young
adults.
1

- The disease occurs as sporadic cases or in epidemics
-Severity of acute stage usually mild.
-Choronicity:- No chronicity & no relation to hepatocellular

carcinoma.
- IT occurs mainly in endemic areas, tropical & under

developed countries due poor hygiene & crowdness.
- Primary infection gives solid immunity & reinfection is rare.
- The case is the source of infection.

Hepatitis B virus:
- Mode of infection:-
1- Parenteral transmission:-

- Transfusion of blood & blood Products. Death rates may be
from 10- 20% in this case, partly due to large dose of virus
received & partly due to weakened condition of partient needing
the transfusion.

- Use of contaminated needles &syringes e.g. in I. v. drug
abusers.
2- sexual transmission .

3- Transmission from the mother to her baby.
- Incubation period: 1-6monthes.
- The disease occures at any age.
- The disease usually occures as sporadic cases & accidental

outbreakes may occure on mass exposure to infected blood as in
2
immunization for shistosomiasis & units for parenteral treatment of

diabetes.
- Severity of acute stage: Mild or severe
- Chronicity:- May lead to chronic complications & hepatocellular

carcinoma .

In developing countries where HBV is widespread most adults
have been infected. This infection usually occure in early
childhood & many become carries of the virus. About one \u2013 third
of these will develop chronic forms of hepatitis.

- Recovery from primary attack or vaccination provides immunity
for 10 years but secondary attack may occure.
- The case & carriers are the source of infection.
Hepatitis C virus:

- Mode of infection:-
1- Parenteral transmission .
2- Sexual transmission & transmission from mother to her baby are

rare.
- Incubation period :- 1 week -4 monthes.
- The disease occures at any age but more common in adults.
- The disease occures as sporadic cases.
- Severity of acute stage: usually mild.
- Chronicity: may lead to chronic complications & hepatocellular

carcinoma.
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