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Oracle Faq

Oracle Faq

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Published by: ash_mzn1 on Dec 01, 2009
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1. What is Log Switch ?The point at which ORACLE ends writing to one online redo log fileand begins writing to another is called a log switch.2. What is On-line Redo Log?The On-line Redo Log is a set of tow or more on-line redo files thatrecord all committed changes made to the database. Whenever atransaction is committed, the corresponding redo entries temporarilystores in redo log buffers of the SGA are written to an on-line redolog file by the background process LGWR. The on-line redo log filesare used in cyclical fashion.3. Which parameter specified in the DEFAULT STORAGE clause of CREATETABLESPACE cannot be altered after creating the tablespace?All the default storage parameters defined for the tablespace can bechanged using the ALTER TABLESPACE command. When objects are createdtheir INITIAL and MINEXTENS values cannot be changed.4. What are the steps involved in Database Startup ?Start an instance, Mount the Database and Open the Database.5. What are the steps involved in Instance Recovery ?Rolling forward to recover data that has not been recorded in datafiles, yet has been recorded in the on-line redo log, including thecontents of rollback segments. Rolling back transactions that havebeen explicitly rolled back or have not been committed as indicatedby the rollback segments regenerated in step a. Releasing anyresources (locks) held by transactions in process at the time of thefailure. Resolving any pending distributed transactions undergoing atwo-phase commit at the time of the instance failure.6. Can Full Backup be performed when the database is open ?No.7. What are the different modes of mounting a Database with theParallel Server ?Exclusive Mode If the first instance that mounts a database does soin exclusive mode, only that Instance can mount the database.Parallel Mode If the first instance that mounts a database isstarted in parallel mode, other instances that are started inparallel mode can also mount the database.What are the advantages of operating a database in ARCHIVELOG modeover operating it in NO ARCHIVELOG mode ? Complete database recoveryfrom disk failure is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode. Onlinedatabase backup is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode.8. What are the steps involved in Database Shutdown ?Close the Database, Dismount the Database and Shutdown the Instance.9. What is Archived Redo Log ?Archived Redo Log consists of Redo Log files that have archived
before being reused.10. What is Restricted Mode of Instance Startup ?An instance can be started in (or later altered to be in) restrictedmode so that when the database is open connections are limited onlyto those whose user accounts have been granted the RESTRICTEDSESSION system privilege.11. What is Partial Backup ?A Partial Backup is any operating system backup short of a fullbackup, taken while the database is open or shut down.12. What is Mirrored on-line Redo Log ?A mirrored on-line redo log consists of copies of on-line redo logfiles physically located on separate disks, changes made to onemember of the group are made to all members.13. What is Full Backup ?A full backup is an operating system backup of all data files, on-line redo log files and control file that constitute ORACLE databaseand the parameter.14. Can a View based on another View ?Yes.15. Can a Tablespace hold objects from different Schemes ?Yes.16. Can objects of the same Schema reside in different tablespaces.?Yes.17. What is the use of Control File ?When an instance of an ORACLE database is started, its control fileis used to identify the database and redo log files that must beopened for database operation to proceed. It is also used indatabase recovery.18. Do View contain Data ?Views do not contain or store data.19. What are the Referential actions supported by FOREIGN KEYintegrity constraint ?UPDATE and DELETE Restrict - A referential integrity rule thatdisallows the update or deletion of referenced data. DELETE Cascade -When a referenced row is deleted all associated dependent rows aredeleted.20. What are the type of Synonyms?There are two types of Synonyms Private and Public
21. What is a Redo Log ?The set of Redo Log files YSDATE,UID,USER or USERENV SQL functions,or the pseudo columns LEVEL or ROWNUM.22. What is an Index Segment ?Each Index has an Index segment that stores all of its data.23. Explain the relationship among Database, Tablespace and Datafile.?Each databases logically divided into one or more tablespaces one ormore data files are explicitly created for each tablespace24. What are the different type of Segments ?Data Segment, Index Segment, Rollback Segment and Temporary Segment.25. What are Clusters ?Clusters are groups of one or more tables physically stores togetherto share common columns and are often used together.26. What is an Integrity Constrains ?An integrity constraint is a declarative way to define a businessrule for a column of a table.27. What is an Index ?An Index is an optional structure associated with a table to havedirect access to rows, which can be created to increase theperformance of data retrieval. Index can be created on one or morecolumns of a table.28. What is an Extent ?An Extent is a specific number of contiguous data blocks, obtainedin a single allocation, and used to store a specific type ofinformation.29. What is a View ?A view is a virtual table. Every view has a Query attached to it.(The Query is a SELECT statement that identifies the columns androws of the table(s) the view uses.)30. What is Table ?A table is the basic unit of data storage in an ORACLE database. Thetables of a database hold all of the user accessible data. Tabledata is stored in rows and columns.31. What is a Synonym ?A synonym is an alias for a table, view, sequence or program unit.32. What is a Sequence ?

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