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The Discovery of the Philippines

The Discovery of the Philippines

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Published by dhanilo

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Published by: dhanilo on Dec 01, 2009
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The Discovery of the Philippines
September 20, 1519
: Magellan departs from Spain with five ships and a complement of 264crew.
March 16, 1521
: Ferdinand Magellan
discovers
the Philippines and claims it for Spain andnames it
 Islas de San Lazaro
.
March 31, 1521
: The first mass in the Philippines takes place.
April 7, 1521
: Magellan arrives at Cebu and befriends Rajah Humabon, ruler of Cebu. Asignificant number of Cebu natives are converted to Catholicism.
April 27, 1521
: Magellan is killed in battle on Mactan Island by Lapu-Lapu. Disputes over women cause deterioration of Spaniard-Cebuano relations and 27 Spaniards are killed. Theremaining Spaniards depart.
1522
: Of the five ships that departed Spain with Magellan, only one ship returns with a crew of 18. The voyage however, is a success and the ship's cargo makes a profit of 105%.
1525
: Spain sends a second expedition to the Philippines under Juan Garcia Jofre de Loaysa.
1526
: A third expedition under Juan Cabot is sent but never reaches the Philippines. Instead, theexpedition spends three years in South America.
1527
: From Mexico, a fourth expedition is sent under Alvaro de Saavedra and eventually reachesMindanao.
1529
: Saavedra dies during the journey of his expedition's return to Spain.
1536
: The Loaysa expedition returns to Spain. The expedition is a failure with Loaysa and manyof his crew having died in the Philippines.
February 2, 1543
: Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, leader of the fifth expedition arrives in thePhilippines. He names it after the Spanish heir to the throne, Philip II. Villalobos remains in thePhilippines for eight months before being forced to leave due to lack of food.
The Philippines as a Spanish Colony
Almost half a century after Magellan's death, the Spanish returned to the Philippines with theintention of establishing a colony. In the first half of their occupation (which is not as welldocumented as the second half), the Spanish managed to defend the Philippines from the Dutchand various Chinese warlords. In the second half of their occupation, much discontent grew as tohow the Spanish ran the colony and treated its people. Revolution was the outcome. Rizal tried amore peaceful approach but for Bonifacio, armed revolution was the only option. As therevolution progressed, a revolutionary government was formed with Aguinaldo as president.After an agreement with Spain, Aguinaldo left in exile to Hong Kong but returned along withAmerican forces in the Spanish-American War and proclaimed independence from Spain.
Early Spanish Rule
February 13, 1565
: Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and his men arrive in the Philippines.
February 15, 1565
: King Philip II of Spain appoints Miguel Lopez de Legazpi as the firstgovernor-general of the Philippines which is to be administered as a territory of Mexico (thenreferred to as New Spain).
 
May 8, 1565
: The natives of Cebu submit to Spanish rule under Legazpi and Cebu becomes thecapital of the Philippines.
1568
: The Portuguese, who believe that under the
Treaty of Tordesillas
, the Philippines fallsunder Portuguese jurisdiction, attack Cebu and blockade the port.
1570
: The Portuguese launch a second attack on the Philippines but are unsuccessful.
May 1570
: Legazpi sends an expedition to Manila which befriends the ruler of Manila, RajahSoliman.
May/June 1570
: War breaks out between the Spanish and Rajah Soliman as a result of either amisunderstanding or due to an attempt to impose Spanish sovereignty on the Manila natives.Soliman's warriors are defeated and Maynilad (Manila) is burnt to the ground and occupied bythe Spanish.
June 24, 1571
: Legazpi selects Manila as the capital of the colony because of the natural harbour and rich lands surrounding the city that could supply it with produce.
November 1574
: The Chinese pirate Limahong attacks Manila and attempts to invade the city but is unsuccessful.
December 1574
: Limahong launches a second attack on Manila but is again unsuccessful.Limahong leaves Manila for Pangasinan. Following Limahong's defeat, Rajah Soliman andLakandula lead a short revolt against the Spanish in towns north of Manila after some of their lands are given away to Spanish officials.
March 23, 1575
: A Spanish-Filipino force leaves for Pangasinan where Limahong hasestablished his own kingdom. In the following months, Limahong's Chinese fleet is destroyed byfire. His fort is attacked and damaged by fire but holds out giving Limahong time to build new boats and repair some of the breaches in his fort.
August 4, 1575
: Limahong sets sail for China and departs the fort via a secret channel that hismen had dug. The Spanish are taken by surprise by this development and drive wooden stakesinto the riverbed where they expect Limahong to pass through. As Limahong arrives at the stakesthe Spanish subject his fleet to a blinding fire. Despite this, the Chinese remove enough stakes toallow Limahong to escape.
1580
: Philip II of Spain becomes Philip I of Portugal (not officially recognised until 1581),ultimately ending the dispute between Spain and Portugal over the Philippines. In the same year,forced labour is imposed on Filipino males aged 16 to 60.
1585
: In Pampanga, a revolt is planned against the Spanish who learn of the revolt before it eventakes place. The leaders of the planned revolt are executed.
1589
: A revolt breaks out in the Ilocos and Cagayan areas over abuses of tax collectors andunfair taxes. The Spanish forces pacify the rebels and grant them pardon. The tax system isoverhauled.
1600
: The galleon trade between Manila and Acapulco, Mexico begins.
1600 - 1617
: The Dutch attempt to seize the Philippines but are defeated by the Spanish navy.
1603
: The Chinese revolt against injustices under the Spanish who suppress the revolt brutally.
1621
: A revolt breaks out in Bohol lead by Tamblot, a priest of the native religion. The revolt isfollowed by other revolts in Leyte, Panay and Samar against collection of tributes.
January 1, 1622
: The revolt in Bohol lead by Tamblot is crushed.
 
1639
: The Chinese revolt against Spanish rule. The revolt is brutally suppressed.
1646
: The Spanish navy repulses five separate Dutch attempts to enter and capture Manilathroughout the year.
June 1, 1649
: A revolt breaks out in Samar lead by Juan Ponce Sumuroy in protest of nativeWarays being sent to the shipyards of Cavite under the imposed forced labour.
June 1650
: Sumuroy is defeated, captured and executed which ends the revolt in Samar.
1662
: The Chinese revolt against Spanish rule. The revolt is brutally suppressed.
1686
: The Chinese revolt against Spanish rule. The revolt is brutally suppressed.
1744 - 1829
: Bohol remains outside of Spanish control following one of the most successfulrevolts against Spanish authority led by Francisco Dagohoy. None of the Spanish governor-generals serving in office throughout the revolt are able to suppress it. Dagohoy dies two years before the end of the revolt and thousands of survivors are granted pardon after the revolt is over.
1745 - 1746
: A revolt breaks out in Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite and Laguna after greedy Spanishfriars seize land from the Filipino natives. In retaliation, churches are looted are burnt to theground. The Spanish authorities investigate the case which even reaches the king of Spain whoorders the friars to return the lands. The friars successfully appeal and no land is returned to theFilipino landowners.
British Occupation and the Seven Years War
1756
: The Seven Years War begins although hostilities had already begun sometime before war was declared.
September 24, 1762
: British forces land off Manila and attack.
October 6, 1762
: The Spanish surrender Manila and the Philippines to the British but organise aresistance to retake the Philippines. The long persecuted Chinese merchant community supportthe British invasion. The Spanish establish a new capital in Bacolor. The British forces open thecolony to international trade.
December 14, 1762
: Diego Silang starts a revolt against the Spanish and declares anindependent and free state called
 Ilocandia
with Vigan as its capital. Silang and the British joinforces against the Spanish.
May 28, 1763
: Diego Silang is murdered by his friend who was paid by the Spanish for themurder. The revolt continues led by Diego's wife, Gabriela Silang.
September 10, 1763
: Gabriela Silang attacks Vigan but the Spanish are well prepared andsupported by a Filipino force from surrounding regions. Many of Gabriela's men are killed butshe escapes along with her uncle and several other men to Abra but captured several days later.
September 29, 1763
: Gabriela and her remaining followers are executed by hanging. Gabriela isthe last to die and ultimately becomes the first female martyr of the Philippines. History willremember her as the
 Joan of Arc of Ilocandia
.
February 10, 1763
: Under the
Treaty of Paris
, Britain returns the Philippines to Spain.
July 23, 1763
: News of the
Treaty of Paris
reaches the British governor of the Philippines. Heattempts to negotiate a truce with the Spanish who do not trust the British and so hostilitiescontinue.
1764
: The Spanish learn of the treaty from Madrid. All fighting ceases.

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