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Corrosion and its Control

Corrosion and its Control

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Published by: api-26041653 on Dec 01, 2009
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03/18/2014

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UNIT \u2013 II \u2013 CORROSION AND CORROSION CONTROL
Syllabus:
9 hrs.

Chemical corrosion \u2013 Pilling \u2013 Bedworth rule \u2013 electrochemical corrosion \u2013 different types \u2013 galvanic corrosion \u2013 differential aeration corrosion \u2013 factors influencing corrosion \u2013 corrosion control \u2013 sacrificial anode and impressed cathodic current methods \u2013 corrosion inhibitors \u2013 protective coatings \u2013 paints \u2013 constituents and functions \u2013 metallic coatings \u2013 electroplating (Au) and electroless (Ni) plating.

Session
No
Topics to be covered
Time
min
Ref
Teaching
Aids
10
Chemical corrosion, corrosion due to Oxygen \u2013 Pilling \u2013
Bedworth rule on corrosion products
50
1,2
BB &
Chalk
11

electrochemical corrosion \u2013 Hydrogen evolution and oxygen
absorption cathodic process, different types \u2013 galvanic
corrosion

-do-
1,2
-do-
12
differential aeration corrosion \u2013 factors influencing corrosion
-do-
1,2
-do-
13
corrosion control \u2013 sacrificial anode and impressed cathodic
current methods
-do-
1,2
-do-
14
corrosion inhibitors
15
protective coatings \u2013 paints \u2013 constituents and functions
-do-
1,2
-do-
16
metallic coatings \u2013 Principle and methods of electroplating,
electroplating (Au)
-do-
1,2
-do-
17
Principle and methods of electroless plating ,electroless (Ni)
plating.
-do-
1,2
-do-
18
Revision
-do-
1,2
-do-
1
Introduction:

Corrosion is a general term that refers to the deterioration and ultimate destruction of a metal due to its reaction with the surrounding gaseous or liquid environment. Corrosion is a decay process in which metals exhibit their natural tendency to revert to their native combined state of existence as minerals-e.g. as oxides, sulphates, carbonates etc. All metals and alloys are susceptible to corrosion under different environmental conditions. Only metals such as gold and platinum exist in nature as metals and are not susceptible to corrosion under ordinary atmospheric conditions and hence are called noble metals. Corrosion causes a heavy loss to industries since the modern day domestic and industrial applications uses mainly metals and alloys.

Types of Corrosion:

Corrosion may be broadly classified into two types based on the mechanism of corrosion. These include (a) dry corrosion also called as chemical corrosion (b) wet corrosion also called as electrochemical corrosion``

(a) Dry Corrosion (or) Chemical Corrosion:

One of the most common ways by which metals get corroded is by direct interaction with atmospheric gases such as oxygen, hydrogen sulphide, halogens, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen. Oxygen is primarily responsible for corrosion of most metallic structure as compared to other gases and chemicals.

Direct attack on metal by oxygen even at ambient temperatures in the absence of moisture leads to oxidation corrosion, that is, the formation of the corresponding metal oxide, which is normally thermodynamically spontaneous process.

The oxidative corrosion may be considered to involve the reactions of oxidation of the divalent metal to form the metal ion with the simultaneous release of electrons and the combination of the electrons with oxygen to form oxide ions.

M
M2+ + 2e-
2
\u00bdO2 + 2e-
O2-
The overall reaction:
M + O2
M2+ O2- (metal-oxide film)

Diffusion of oxygen are responsible for continued oxidation and growth of the film into an oxide scale. The growth of an oxide film can occur due to (a) migration of metal ions outwards to the surface (b) migration of oxide ions from the surface to the bulk, (c) simultaneous migration of metal ions and oxide ions, and (d) penetration of molecular oxygen through the metal-oxide interface. In general, outward diffusion of metal ions and electrons is likely to be more rapid due to the fact that cations are smaller in size compared to the oxide ions.

M
Mn+ + ne- (oxidation)
Mn+
Mn+
O2-
Mn+
Atmospheric Oxygen
e-
O2-
Metal-M
O2-
\u00bdO2 + 2e-
O2-(reduction)
Mechanism of Oxidation of Metal to Metal oxide
Nature of the oxide formed plays an important role in oxidation corrosion process
i.e. Metal + oxygen
metal oxide (corrosion product)
When oxidation starts, a thin layer of oxide is formed on the metal surface and the
nature this film decides the further action. If the film is:

(i) Stable: A stable layer is fine-grained in structure and can get adhered tightly to the parent metal surface. Such a film behaves as protective coating in nature, thereby shielding the metal surface. The oxide films on Al, Sn, Pb, Pt, cu etc., are stable.

(ii) Unstable: the oxide layer formed decomposes back into the metal and oxygen
3

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