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Chemical corrosion \u2013 Pilling \u2013 Bedworth rule \u2013 electrochemical corrosion \u2013 different types \u2013 galvanic corrosion \u2013 differential aeration corrosion \u2013 factors influencing corrosion \u2013 corrosion control \u2013 sacrificial anode and impressed cathodic current methods \u2013 corrosion inhibitors \u2013 protective coatings \u2013 paints \u2013 constituents and functions \u2013 metallic coatings \u2013 electroplating (Au) and electroless (Ni) plating.
electrochemical corrosion \u2013 Hydrogen evolution and oxygen
absorption cathodic process, different types \u2013 galvanic
Corrosion is a general term that refers to the deterioration and ultimate destruction of a metal due to its reaction with the surrounding gaseous or liquid environment. Corrosion is a decay process in which metals exhibit their natural tendency to revert to their native combined state of existence as minerals-e.g. as oxides, sulphates, carbonates etc. All metals and alloys are susceptible to corrosion under different environmental conditions. Only metals such as gold and platinum exist in nature as metals and are not susceptible to corrosion under ordinary atmospheric conditions and hence are called noble metals. Corrosion causes a heavy loss to industries since the modern day domestic and industrial applications uses mainly metals and alloys.
Corrosion may be broadly classified into two types based on the mechanism of corrosion. These include (a) dry corrosion also called as chemical corrosion (b) wet corrosion also called as electrochemical corrosion``
One of the most common ways by which metals get corroded is by direct interaction with atmospheric gases such as oxygen, hydrogen sulphide, halogens, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen. Oxygen is primarily responsible for corrosion of most metallic structure as compared to other gases and chemicals.
Direct attack on metal by oxygen even at ambient temperatures in the absence of moisture leads to oxidation corrosion, that is, the formation of the corresponding metal oxide, which is normally thermodynamically spontaneous process.
The oxidative corrosion may be considered to involve the reactions of oxidation of the divalent metal to form the metal ion with the simultaneous release of electrons and the combination of the electrons with oxygen to form oxide ions.
Diffusion of oxygen are responsible for continued oxidation and growth of the film into an oxide scale. The growth of an oxide film can occur due to (a) migration of metal ions outwards to the surface (b) migration of oxide ions from the surface to the bulk, (c) simultaneous migration of metal ions and oxide ions, and (d) penetration of molecular oxygen through the metal-oxide interface. In general, outward diffusion of metal ions and electrons is likely to be more rapid due to the fact that cations are smaller in size compared to the oxide ions.
(i) Stable: A stable layer is fine-grained in structure and can get adhered tightly to the parent metal surface. Such a film behaves as protective coating in nature, thereby shielding the metal surface. The oxide films on Al, Sn, Pb, Pt, cu etc., are stable.
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