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Analytical Techniques

Analytical Techniques

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ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
INTRODUCTION
Spectroscopy is one of the valuable technique used to study atomic and molecular

structure. It is the study of interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter and the important consequence of this interaction is that energy gets absorbed or emitted by the matter in discrete amounts called q u a n ta . The absorption or emission takes place throught the electromagnetic spectrum.

The study of spectroscopy can be discussed under the following headings.
1. Atomic spectroscopy: It deals with the interaction of emr (electromagnetic
radiation) with atoms.
2. Molecular spectroscopy: It deals with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation
with molecules.
Electromagnetic radiation:

Light is a form of energy and it is a example of emr. All the properties of light can be explained by considering the two complimentary theories Corpuscular and Wave theory. According to wave theory, light travel in the form of waves. Like light there are various forms of emr such as Ultraviolet (UV), Infrared (IR), X-ray, radio waves etc.

Characteristics of emr:

1. Electromagnetic wave is an alternating electrical and associated magnetic force in space. Emr has an electric component and magnetic component. The two components oscillate in planes perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of propagation.

2.Emr are characterized by their wavelength , frequency or wave number.
Wavelength(\u03bb) : It is the distance between the adjacent crest or troughs. It is generally

expressed in nm, Ao (Angstrom) or in m\u03bc (millimicron). A beam of emr carrying radiation of one discrete wavelength is said to be monochromatic and a beam having radiation of several wavelength is called polychromatic or heterochromatic.

1 nm = 10-9 m = 10Ao = 1 m\u03bc 1 Ao =10-8cm = 10-10 m
1
Frequency (\u03c5): The no. of complete wavelength units passing through a given point in
unit time is called frequency. It is expressed id cycles / second or hertz.1 CPS = 1 hertz
Wave number ( ): It is the reciprocal of wavelength expressed in cm-1 or it
is the total no. of waves which can pass through a space of one cm.

3.The energy carried by an electromagnetic radiation is directly proportional to its frequency . E = h\u03c5 = h. c / \u03bb where h is Planck's constant = 6.626 x 10-2 7 ergs sec. \u03c5 is frequency in cps ,

c is velocity of emr.
\u03bb is
wavelength of emr.
4. All types of radiation travel with the same velocity and no medium is
required for their propagation.
Electromagnetic Spectrum:The arrangement of all types of emr in order
of their increasing wavelength or decreasing frequency is known as
electromagnetic spectrum.
Wavelength (nm)
EMR
\u03b3- ray
0.1----------
X- ray
10-----------
Far UV
200----------
UV
400- - -- - -- - --
visible
800----------
Near IR
2500----------
IR
3 x 104----------
Far IR
3 x 105----------
Micro wave.
1 x 109-----------
2
Radio wave
1 x 1013-----------
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Types of molecular energy:.
The total energy of the molecule, Etot = Etran s + Erot + Ev ib +Eel e
Where

Etrans is the energy due to translational motion. This energy is associated with the uniform motion of a molecule as a whole .This form of energy is of no significance in spectroscopy. It is not quantized and it can be neglected.

Erot is the energy associated with overall rotation of the molecule
with atoms considered as fixed point masses.
Ev ib is the energy associated with the oscillation of atom of the
molecule.
Eel e is the energy associated with the motion of electrons while
considering the nucleus of the atom.
Etot = Erot +E v ib +Eel e
Eele > Evib >Erot.
All these energy components arequant ize d
Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with molecule:
Spectroscopy is the study of interaction of emr with matter. After interaction there may
occur variation in the intensity of emr with frequency or wavelength.

The instrument which is used to record the variation in the intensity of radiation is known as sp ect ro m et er and the plot of variation in intensity with frequency or wavelength is called as sp ect ru m .

Types of spectra.
3

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