Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
6Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Pinel, Read, and Wright: Composition and microstructure of ancient iron castings

Pinel, Read, and Wright: Composition and microstructure of ancient iron castings

Ratings: (0)|Views: 143|Likes:
Published by Donald B. Wagner
American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Technical Publication no. 882, 1938. By Maurice L. Pinel, Thomas T. Read, and Thomas A, Wright.
Chemical analysis and metallographic examination of nine ancient Chinese cast iron artefacts. The first and still one of the best.
American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Technical Publication no. 882, 1938. By Maurice L. Pinel, Thomas T. Read, and Thomas A, Wright.
Chemical analysis and metallographic examination of nine ancient Chinese cast iron artefacts. The first and still one of the best.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Donald B. Wagner on Dec 01, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/10/2013

pdf

text

original

 
AMERICAN
INSTITUTE
OF
MINING
AND
METALLURGICAL
ENGINEERS
Technical
Publication
No.882
(CLASS
C,
IRON
AND
STEEL
DIVISION,
No.
193)
DISCUSSION
OF
THIS PAPER
IS
INVITED.
It
shouldpreferably
be
presented
by
the
con
tributor
in
person
at
the
New
York Meeting,
February,
1938,
when
an abstract
of
the
paper
willbe
r
ead
.
If
this
is
impossible, discussion
in writing
(2copies)
may
be
sent
to
the
Secretary,American
Institute
of
Mining
and
Metallurgical Engineers,
29
West39th Street,NewYork.
N.
Y.
Unlessspecial
arrangement
is
made.
discussion
of
this
paper
will
close
April
1, 1938.
Any
discussion
offered
thereafter
should preferably
be
in
th
e
form
ofa
new
paper.
Composition
and
Microstructure
of
AncientIronCastings
By
MAURICE
L.
PINEL,
*
JUNIOR
MEMBER,
THOMAS
T.
READt
AND
THOMAS
A.
WRIGHT,t
MEMBERS
A.I.M.E.
(New
York
Meeting,
February.
1938)
THE
erroneous,
but
until
recently widely prevalent, belief
that
ironcastings were first madein
Europe
in
the
fourteenth
century
has been
adequately
refuted
in
a
number
of earlier papers;1,1l,
12
but
exceptfor
an
unpublished metallographic
study
by
thelate
William Campbell,
and
aphosphorus analysis
by
T.
A.
Wright
of
the
metal
of
the
Han
dynasty
cast-ironstovedescribed
by
Laufer,2
nothing
was known ofeither
the
chemical composition or
the
metallographic
structure
of
the
metal of
any
ancient ironcasting,although
data
on
castings ofrecent
manufacture
are
abundantly
available.
The
metal
of
the
stove, which had been buriedin a grave for
at
l
east
15centuries, wassocorroded
that
it
seemedinadvisable
to
publish
the
results on
it
until
more
and
better
specimensfrom
other
ancient castings eould be obtained.During a
journey
through China, extending from Peking
inthe north
to
Cantoninthesouth
and
Cheng-tu, Ssu-chuan,in
the
west,
inthelate
summer
and
autumn
of 1936, one of us
(1'.
T.
Read) was
fortunate
enough
to
obtain,
and
bring home for study, nine castings, all more
than
1000 years old, of which
the date
of
manufacture
isprecisely knownbecause of inscriptions cast
in
them,
another
that
lacksa
dated
inscription,
but
of which
the
date,asexplained below, can be otherwise
estab
lished,
and
a specimen from
the
largest ironcastingevermade,l1 which isalso dated.
Th
eperiod covered
by
this
suiteofspecimens extendsfrom 502
to
1093A.D.
In
addition, a sample was obtained from a castingof
date
unknown,
but
which was certainlycastbefore 1000 A.D.
and
possibly as
ea
rlyas
the
third
century
A.D. A detailed description ofthesespecimensis as follows:
1.
502 A.D. A
pair
(right
and
left)of
recumbent
lions
(F
ig.1). Base
7%by
14%
in.,
height
over-a
1l5
Hin., weight 26 lb.each.
The
translation
of
the
inscriptionon
the
base is:
"Made
onthetwenty-fourth
day
of
theseventhmonth
of
the thirdyear
of
Ching Ming
of
Great
Wei"
(Sept.
11,502
A.D.).
Manuscript
received
at
the
office of
the Institute
Nov. 24, 1937.
*
Metallurgist,
with
A.
W. Deller,
Pat
ent
Attorney,
New York, N. Y.
t
Vinton Professor of Mining Engineering, Columbia
University,
New York.
t
Secretary
and
Technical
Director,
Lucius
Pitkin
&
Co., New York, N. Y.
1
References
are
at
the
end
of
the
paper.
Copyr
igh
t,
1938,
by
t
METALS
TECHNOLOGY
H.
W.
STRALEY,
III
N(}
982
,
,
nd
Metallurgical
Engineers,
Inc.
. A.
 
2
COMPOSITION
AND
MICROSTRUCTURE
OF ANCIENT
IRON
CASTINGS
2. 508 A.D.
Two
cast-iron
ink
slabs,
Y8
by
4
by 5%
in.,
weight
43i
lb. each.
Th
eobverse
bears
the
inscription:
"Yung
Ping
Seven
Star
Ink
Slab."The
reverseshows
the
conste
llationof
theGreat
Bear, with
the
in
script
i
on:
"Made
under
the
supervisionof
Yu
Jen
in the
second
month
ofSpringof
Ping
Shen"
(March,
508).3. 550
A.D.
A
standing
figure of
Kwan
Yin,
on
a
73i
by
33i
-in.
round
(lotus)pedestal,
the
over-a
ll h
eight
being
31
in.
and
the
weight
50lb.(Fig.1).
The
inscrip
tion
on
the
front
of
the
base is:
"An
image
respectfully
made
by
Chang
Wen
for his
parents
at
Cloud
Light
temple, Bell Rock
Mountain, on the twenty-eighth
day
of
the
third month
of
the
first
year
of
Tien
Pao"
(April 30, 550
A.D.).
4.
558 A.D. Small
standing
figureof
Kwan Yin
(Fig. 1) ona
rectangular
base,
the
over-all
height
being 20 in.
and
the
weight
161b. On
the
reverseof
th
ehalo
aboutthe
head
is
the
inscription:
"This
iron
im
age was
made
on
the
twenty-fifth
day
of
theninth
month
of
the
sixteenth
year
of
Wu Ting
(Oct.22, 558 A.D.)
above
for
the
Emperorand after
him
for
the
multitud
eoflives."4B. 719
A.D
.A
panel
18~
in. s
quare
showing
three
figures(Fig. 2), a
centralBuddha
and
two
attendants,
each
standing
on a
lotu
spedestal.
Weight
52lb. No
sample
was
cut
from
this
specimen,
as
it
was
impossible
to
obtain
one
wi
thout
defacing
it.
Th
einscriptionis:
"Made
on
the ninth
day
of
thethird
month
of
the
sixth
year
of
Kai
Yiian,
Great
Tang"
(April
4,719
A.D.).
5.
923
A.D. Two
panels(Fig.2).Onesim
il
ar
indesign
to4B
is
133i
by
17~
in.
and
weighs 25
lb.;the
sample
is
from
this one;
the
other
(shownin Fig.2),
with
only two
stand
ingfigures,is
9~
by
19
in.
and
weighs 25lb.
Each
bears
the
same
inscription:
"An
imagerespectfully
made
by
monks
of
the
Old
Buddha temple
on
theninth
day
of
thetenth
month
of
the
second
year
of
Tung
Kwang
of
Great
Tang"
(Nov.20, 923 A.D.).
6.
953 A.
D.
Sample from 20
by
16-ft.cast-ironlion
at
Ts'a
ng-chow.(Seeref.
11
for
detailed
description.)An
illustr
at
ionof
this
appeared
inMINI
NGAND
METAL-
LURGY
in August, 1937.
7.
1093. Oneof1024cast-iron
panel
s,
73i
by
7%in., froma
pagoda
built
at
Chii-Yiing(26miles
east
of
Nanking)
in
1093(Fig.2).
Weight
61b.
The
in
sc
riptionsays:
"Given
by
Mrs.H
Sii,
afemale discipleof
this
province
."
8.
?
Date.
Sample
from
"flying
scissors."
Nanking
(Fig.3.)
Date
unknown,
certa
inly
ear
lier
than
No.7,
andperhap
sas
early
as
300A.D.
9.
?
Date.
Sample
from
cast
-iron
stove.'
Almost
certainly
older
than
200
A.D.
As nothinghas hith
erto
been published
in
English
about
the
castingrepresen
ted by
sam
ple
No.8,
abrief description seems necessary. Thiscasting,shapedlike
an
X, 3
by
6
ft
.,
and
weighing
about
1500 lb.,hasbeendescribed
by
Louis Gaillard(VarietesSinologiques, Shanghai, 1904) as well as two
other
simil
ar
ones.
The
purpose ofa
ll
three iscompletely unknown.Chinese writings generallyascribe a
thirdcenturydate to
oneofthem,
but
thereisnothing more definite
about the
onefrom which
the
sample was obtained
than
a
remark
by
afourteenth
century
Chineseauthor, who said
it
wassoold
atthat
time
that
no one
any
longerknewwhen
it
was
made
or forw
hat
purpose.
It
has beenincluded
inthe
suitebecause of
the
considerable probability
thatit
represents a
date
intermediate between
No.1
and
No.9,
the
latt
erbeing
the
ear
li
est specimenof iron casting sofardiscovered. No.1 is
the
earliestprecisely
dated
ironcastingknownrtoexist.
 
.'
MAURICE L.
PINEL,
TH01>{AS
T.
READ
AND THOMAS
A.
WRIGHT
3
As
tothe authenticityof thee casting.,
th
erecanbe no
doubt
a to.
o.
6,a
it
wastakenby one
of
us (T. T.Read)and thed
ate
castintothelion i upportedbydocume
ntary
evid
en
ce
aswe
ll.
Norithere
FlO.I.-
LEFT
TO
RIGHT:
No.1,502A.D.;
0.3,550
A.D.;
0.4,558
A.D.
.
FIG.
2.
-
LE
FT
TO
RIGHT:
1
o. 4B,
719
A.D.;
0.5,923
A.D
.,
questionasto
No.7,
as
it
wasremoved fromthepagodaunderpersonal superv!
Jon
.
It
wasevidentlybuilt into the pagoda
at
the time
of
itsoriginalconstruction,and the date
of
1093A.D.forthel
atter
is amplysupported by historicalrecords.

Activity (6)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
suatkaraman liked this
Izwan Farhan A liked this
suatkaraman liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->