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Characterization in Silicon Processing

Characterization in Silicon Processing

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Published by Momentum Press
With a focus on the use of materials characterization techniques for silicon-based semiconductors, this volume in the Materials Characterization series focuses on the process flow of silicon wafer manufacture where materials properties, processing and associated problems are brought to the fore.
With a focus on the use of materials characterization techniques for silicon-based semiconductors, this volume in the Materials Characterization series focuses on the process flow of silicon wafer manufacture where materials properties, processing and associated problems are brought to the fore.

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Published by: Momentum Press on Dec 01, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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10/21/2011

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vi Contents
POLYSILICON CONDUCTORS
2.1
Introduction 32
2.2
Deposition 33
Surface Preparation 34, Nucleation and Growth 35, Postgrowth Analysis 38, High-Quality Polysilicon 42, Integrated CircuitFabrication Issues 43
2.3
Doping 45
Dopant Distribution 45, Deglaze 46, Ion Implantation Doping 46
2.4
Patterning 47
Lithography 47, Etching 47
2.5
Subsequent Processing 48
Polycides 48, Dielectric Encapsulation 49
SILICIDES
3.1
Introduction 53
3.2
Formation of Silicides 57
Sheet Resistance Measurements 57, Rutherford BackscatteringMeasurements 60, X-Ray Diffraction Measurements 72,Ellipsometric Measurements 74
3.3
The Silicide–Silicon Interface 76
3.4
Oxidation of Silicides 82
3.5
Dopant Redistribution During Silicide Formation 84
3.6
Stress in Silicides 87
3.7
Stability of Silicides 90
3.8
Summary 92
 ALUMINUM- AND COPPER-BASED CONDUCTORS
4.1
Introduction 96
History 96
4.2
Film Deposition 98
Techniques 98, Problems with Deposition 101
4.3
Film Growth 104
Substrate Surface Properties 104, Surface Preparation 107, FilmFormation 108, Microstructure 110, Patterning and Etching 110
4.4
Encapsulation 113
4.5
Reliability Concerns 114
 
Contents vii
TUNGSTEN-BASED CONDUCTORS
5.1
Applications for ULSI Processing 121
5.2
Deposition Principles 122
5.3
Blanket Tungsten Deposition 123
Film Thickness 123, Film Conformality 124, Film Resistivity 124,Film Stress 125, Surface Roughness 126, Film Microstructure 127
5.4
Selective Tungsten Deposition 127
Selectivity Breakdown 129, Substrate Interaction 131
BARRIER FILMS
6.1
Introduction 138
6.2
Characteristics of Barrier Films 139
6.3
Types of Barrier Films 140
6.4
Processing Barrier Films 140
Inert Sputtering 141, Reactive Sputtering 141, Chemical VaporDeposition 142, Nitridation and Rapid Thermal Annealing 143
6.5
Examples of Barrier Films 143
Titanium Thin Films 144, Tungsten–Titanium Thin Films 149Titanium Nitride 151
6.6
Summary 163
 APPENDIX: TECHNIQUE SUMMARIES
1
Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 169
2
Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM) 170
3
Capacitance–Voltage (C–V) Measurements 177
4
Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) 179
5
Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Dynamic SIMS) 181
6
Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) Microscopy 182
7
Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) 188
8
Focused Ion Beams (FIBs) 189
9
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) 193
10
Hall Effect Resistivity Measurements 194
11
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) 196
12
Light Microscopy 197

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