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concepts_oracle

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Oracle9i
Database Concepts
Release 2 (9.2)
March 2002
Part No. A96524-01
Oracle9i Database Concepts, Release 2 (9.2)
Part No. A96524-01
Copyright \u00a9 1996, 2002 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Michele Cyran

Contributors: Lance Ashdown, Cathy Baird, Sandeepan Banerjee, Mark Bauer, Ruth Baylis, Pradeep
Bhanot, Janet Blowney, Allen Brumm, Ted Burroughs, Larry Carpenter, Donna Carver, Chandra
Chandrasekar, Gary Chen, Amit Ganesh, Tom Grant, Mike Hartstein, John Haydu, Susan Hillson,

Dominique Jeunot, Archna Kalra Johnson, Vishy Karra, Alex Keh, Susan Kotsovolos, Sushil Kumar,

Tirthankar Lahiri, Paul Lane, Simon Law, Jeff Levinger, Yunrui Li, Bryn Llew ellyn, Diana Lorentz, Lenore Luscher, Sheryl Maring, Ben Meng, Kuassi Mensah, Tony Morales, Ari Mozes, Subramanian Muralidhar, Ravi Murthy, Sujatha Muthulingam, Gary Ngai, Kant Patel, Ananth Raghavan, Jack Raitto, Beck

Reitmeyer, Ann Rhee, Kathy Rich, John Russell, Vivian Schupmann, Ravi Shankar, Mark Smith, Richard Smith, Ekrem Soylemez, Marie St. Gelais, Debbie Steiner, Bob Thome, Anh-Tuan Tran, Randy Urbano, Stephen Vivian, Daniel Wong, Wanli Yang, Ruiling Zhang, Zulaikha

GraphicDesigner: ValarieMoore

The Programs (which include both the software and documentation) contain proprietary information of
Oracle Corporation; they are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and
disclosure and are also protected by copyright, patent and other intellectual and industrial property

laws. Reverse engineering, disassembly or decompilation of the Programs, except to the extent required
to obtain interoperability with other independently created software or as specified by law, is prohibited.

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems in the documentation, please report them to us in writing. Oracle Corporation does not warrant that this document is error-free. Except as may be expressly permitted in your license agreement for these

Programs, no part of these Programs may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Oracle Corporation.
If the Programs are delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing or using the programs on
behalf of the U.S. Government, the follow ing notice is applicable:
Restricted Rights NoticePrograms delivered subject to the DOD FAR Supplement are "commercial
computer software" and use, duplication, and disclosure of the Programs, including documentation,

shall be subject to the licensing restrictions set forth in the applicable Oracle license agreement.
Otherwise, Programs delivered subject to the Federal Acquisition Regulations are "restricted computer
software" and use, duplication, and disclosure of the Programs shall be subject to the restrictions in FAR

52.227-19, Commercial Computer Softw are - Restricted Rights (June, 1987). Oracle Corporation, 500
Oracle Parkw ay, Redw ood City, CA 94065.

The Programs are not intended for use in any nuclear, aviation, mass transit, medical, or other inherently
dangerous applications. It shall be the licensee's responsibility to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup,
redundancy, and other measures to ensure the safe use of such applications if the Programs are used for
such purposes, and Oracle Corporation disclaims liability for any damages caused by such use of the

Programs.
Oracle is a registered trademark, and Oracle9i, Oracle8i, Oracle7, Oracle Store, Oracle Transparent
Gatew ay, PL/ SQL, Pro*C, Pro*Cobol, Pro*C/ C++, Express, SQL*Net, and SQL*Plus are trademarks or
registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
iii
Contents
Send Us Your Comments...............................................................................................................xxxi
Preface.......................................................................................................................................................xxxiii

Audience...........................................................................................................................................xxxiv Organization.....................................................................................................................................xxxiv Related Documentation.................................................................................................................xxxvii Conventions......................................................................................................................................xxxix Documentation Accessibility..............................................................................................................xlii

Part I What Is Oracle?
1 Introduction to the Oracle Server
Database Structure and Space Management Overview..............................................................1-2

Logical Database Structures........................................................................................................1-2 Schemas and Schema Objects..............................................................................................1-2 Data Blocks, Extents, and Segments...................................................................................1-3 Tablespaces.............................................................................................................................1-5

Physical Database Structures......................................................................................................1-6 Datafiles..................................................................................................................................1-7 Red o Log Files........................................................................................................................1-7 Control Files...........................................................................................................................1-8 Data Utilities..........................................................................................................................1-8

Data Dictionary Overview..........................................................................................................1-9
Data Access Overview.....................................................................................................................1-10

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