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A Course in Number Theory and Cryptography

A Course in Number Theory and Cryptography

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Neal Koblitz
Course inNumber Theoryand Cryptography
Second EditionSpringer-Verlag
New York Berlin Heidelberg London ParisTokyo Hong Kong Barcelona Budapest
Neal KoblitzDepartment of MathematicsUniversity of WashingtonSeattle, WA
Editorial Board
W. Gehring
HalmosDepartment ofDepartment of Department ofMathematicsMathematics MathematicsIndiana University University of Michigan Santa Clara UniversityBloomington,
Ann Arbor, MI
Santa Clara, CA
Mathematics Subject Classifications (1991): 11-01, 1 T71With 5 Illustrations.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataKoblitz, Neal, 1948-A course in number theory and cryptography
Neal Koblitz.
Graduate texts in mathematics
14)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-387-94293-9 (New York
SBN 3-540-94293-9(Berlin
Number theory 2. Cryptography. I. Title. 11. Series.QA241 K672 1994512'.7-dc20 94-1 1613
1994, 1987 Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without thewritten permission of the publisher (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 175 Fifth Avenue, NewYork, NY 10010, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarlyanalysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronicadaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereaf-ter developed is forbidden.The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, evenif the former are not especially identified, is not to be taken as a sign that such names, asunderstood by the Trade Marks and Merchandise Marks Act, may accordingly be used freelyby anyone.Production managed by Hal Henglein; manufacturing supervised by Genieve Shaw.Photocomposed pages prepared from the author's TeX file.Printed and bound by
Sons, Harrisonburg, VA.Printed in the United States of America.ISBN 0-387-94293-9 Springer-Verlag New York Berlin HeidelbergISBN 3-540-94293-9 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York
both Gauss and lesser mathematicians may be justified in rejoic-ing that there is one science [number theory] at any rate, and thattheir own, whose very remoteness from ordinary human activitiesshould keep it gentle and clean.
H. Hardy,
Mathematician's Apology,
Hardy would have been surprised and probably displeased withthe increasing interest in number theory for application to "ordinary humanactivities" such as information transmission (error-correcting codes) andcryptography (secret codes). Less than a half-century after Hardy wrotethe words quoted above, it is no longer inconceivable (though it hasn'thappened yet) that the
(the agency for
government work oncryptography) will demand prior review and clearance before publicationof theoretical research papers on certain types of number theory.In part it is the dramatic increase in computer power and sophistica-tion that has influenced some of the questions being studied by numbertheorists, giving rise to a new branch of the subject, called "computationalnumber theory."This book presumes almost no backgrourid in algebra or number the-ory. Its purpose is to introduce the reader to arithmetic topics, both ancientand very modern, which have been at the center of interest in applications,especially in cryptography. For this reason we take an algorithmic approach,emphasizing estimates of the efficiency of the techniques that arise from thetheory.
special feature of our treatment is the inclusion (Chapter
ofsome very recent applications of the theory of elliptic curves. Elliptic curveshave for a long time formed a central topic in several branches of theoretical
mathematics; now the arithmetic of elliptic curves has turned out to havepotential practical applications as well.Extensive exercises have been included in all of the chapters in orderto enable someone who is studying the material outside of a forrrial coursestructure to solidify her/his understanding.The first two chapters provide a general background.
student whohas had no previous exposure to algebra (field extensions, finite fields) orelementary number theory (congruences) will find the exposition rathercondensed, and should consult more leisurely textbooks for details. On theother hand, someone with more mathematical background would probablywant to skim through the first two chapters, perhaps trying some of theless familiar exercises.Depending on the students' background, it should be possible to covermost of the first five chapters in a semester. Alternately, if the book is usedin a sequel to a one-semester course in elementary number theory, thenChapters 111-VI would fill out a second-semester course.The dependence relation of the chapters is as follows (if one overlookssome inessential references to earlier chapters in Chapters V and VI):Chapter IChapter I1Chapter I11 Chapter V Chapter VIThis book is based upon courses taught at the University of Wash-ington (Seattle) in
and at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences(Madras, India) in
I would like to thank Gary Nelson and DouglasLind for using the manuscript and making helpful corrections.The frontispiece was drawn by Professor
T. Fomenko of MoscowState University to illustrate the theme of the book. Notice that the codeddecimal digits along the walls of the building are not random.This book is dedicated to the memory of the students of Vietnam,Nicaragua and El Salvador who lost their lives in the struggle againstU.S. aggression. The author's royalties from sales of the book will be usedto buy mathematics and science books for the universities and institutes of
Preface to
Second Edition
As the field of cryptography expands to include new concepts and tech-niques, the cryptographic applications of number theory have also broad-ened. In addition to elementary and analytic number theory, increasing usehas been made of algebraic number theory (primality testing with Gaussand Jacobi sums, cryptosystems based on quadratic fields, the number fieldsieve) and arithmetic algebraic geometry (elliptic curve factorization, cryptosystems based on elliptic and hyperelliptic curves, primality tests basedon elliptic curves and abelian varieties). Some of the recent applicationsof number theory to cryptography
ost notably, the number field sievemethod for factoring large integers, which was developed since the appear-ance of the first edition
re beyond the scope of this book. However,by slightly increasing the size of the book, we were able to include somenew topics that help convey more adequately the diversity of applicationsof number theory to this exciting multidisciplinary subject.The following list summarizes t.he main changes in the second edition.Several corrections and clarifications have been made, and manyreferences have been added.A new section on zero-knowledge proofs and oblivious transfer hasbeen added to Chapter IV.
section on the quadratic sieve factoring method has been addedto Chapter V.Chapter VI now includes a section on the use of elliptic curves forprimality testing.Brief discussions of the following concepts have been added:
threshold schemes, probabilistic encryption, hash functions, the Chor-Rivest knapsack cryptosystem, and the U.S. government's new Digital Sig-nature Standard.those three countries.Seattle, May
Seattle, May

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