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matematicas-milne-fields_galois

matematicas-milne-fields_galois

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FIELDS AND GALOIS THEORY
J.S. Milne
Abstract

These notes, which are a revision of those handed out during a course taught to \ufb01rst-year graduate students, give a concise introduction to \ufb01elds and Galois theory. They are intended to include exactly the material that every mathematician must know.

They are freely available at www.jmilne.org.
Please send comments and corrections to me at math@jmilne.org.
v2.01 (August 21, 1996). First version on the web.
v2.02 (May 27, 1998). Minor corrections (57pp).

v3.0 (April 3, 2002). Revised notes; minor additions to text; added 82 exercises
with solutions, an examination, and an index; 100 pages.
Contents
Notations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
References. .....................................
4
Prerequisites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
1 Basic de\ufb01nitions and results
5
Rings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
The characteristic of a \ufb01eld. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
Review of polynomial rings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Factoring polynomials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8 Extension \ufb01elds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Construction of some extension \ufb01elds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The subring generated by a subset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The sub\ufb01eld generated by a subset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Algebraic and transcendental elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Transcendental numbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Constructions with straight-edge and compass.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Algebraically closed \ufb01elds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Exercises 1\u20134. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

0Copyright 1996, 1998, 2002. J.S. Milne. You may make one copy of these notes for your own personal
use.
1
2 Splitting \ufb01elds; multiple roots
24

Maps from simple extensions. ........................... 24 Splitting \ufb01elds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Multiple roots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Exercises 5\u201310. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3 The fundamental theorem of Galois theory
31

Groups of automorphisms of \ufb01elds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Separable, normal, and Galois extensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The fundamental theorem of Galois theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Constructible numbers revisited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 The Galois group of a polynomial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Solvability of equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Exercises 11\u201313. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

4 Computing Galois groups.
42

When isGf\u2282 An?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 When isGf transitive?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Polynomials of degree\u22643. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Quartic polynomials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Examples of polynomials withSp as Galois group overQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Finite \ufb01elds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Computing Galois groups overQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Exercises 14\u201320. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

5 Applications of Galois theory
52

Primitive element theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Cyclotomic extensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Independence of characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 The normal basis theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Hilbert\u2019s Theorem 90. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Cyclic extensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Proof of Galois\u2019s solvability theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 The general polynomial of degreen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Norms and traces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Exercises 21\u201323. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

6 Algebraicclosures
73

Zorn\u2019s Lemma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 First proof of the existence of algebraic closures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Second proof of the existence of algebraic closures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Third proof of the existence of algebraic closures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 (Non)uniqueness of algebraic closures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

7 In\ufb01nite Galois extensions
76
8 Transcendentalextensions
78
A Reviewexercises
83
B Solutions to Exercises
88
C Two-hourExamination
96
Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

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